Treating High Blood Glucose
Hyperglycaemia can occur when your blood glucose levels become too high. It can happen for several reasons, such as eating too much, being unwell or not taking enough insulin.
If you develop hyperglycaemia, you may need to adjust your diet or your insulin dose to keep your glucose levels normal. Your diabetes care team can advise you about the best way to do this.
If hyperglycaemia isn’t treated, it can lead to a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis, where the body begins to break down fats for energy instead of glucose, resulting in a build-up of ketones in your blood.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is very serious and, if not addressed quickly, it can lead to unconsciousness and, eventually, death.
The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include:
- frequently passing urine
Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis
Your healthcare team will educate you on how to decrease your risk of ketoacidosis by testing your own blood for ketones using blood ketone sticks if you’re unwell.
If you develop diabetic ketoacidosis, you’ll need urgent hospital treatment. You’ll be given insulin directly into a vein . You may also need other fluids given by a drip if you’re dehydrated, including salt solution and potassium.
How Managing Blood Sugar Helps Now
Keeping your blood sugar levels on target can help you avoid serious health problems like heart disease and nerve damage down the road. But did you know avoiding ups and downs in blood sugar can help you feel better right away?
Steady blood sugar levels can help you have more energy, better sleep, an easier-to-manage appetite, better focus, and stable moods. If youre having trouble meeting your target, talk to your doctor or diabetes educator about making changes to your treatment plan so you can stay in range longer and feel better.
Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments And Support
Learning you or your child has type 1 diabetes means taking an active role in health 24/7. Luckily, there are more low-key ways to track blood sugar and administer insulin than ever. From glucose monitoring to meal planning, were here to empower you with clear answers to all your pressing questions.;
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Additional Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes In Babies And Toddlers
- Weight loss
- Failure to thrive, a condition involving weight loss or inability to gain weight combined with stunted growth
- Colic or fussiness that just wont let up
- Poor-quality sleep that doesnt improve no matter what you try
- Bedwetting, especially after successful potty-training
All of these symptoms are a result of hyperglycemiatoo much glucose circulating in our bloodstream, also known as high blood sugar. Any person experiencing;hyperglycemia, particularly after a viral illness, should seek immediate medical help.
Testing For Type 1 Diabetes
A;simple blood test will let you know if you have diabetes. If youve gotten your blood sugar tested at a health fair or pharmacy, follow up at a clinic or doctors office to make sure the results are accurate.
If your doctor thinks you have type 1 diabetes, your blood may also be tested for autoantibodies that are often present with type 1 diabetes but not with type 2. You may have your urine tested for ketones , which also indicate type 1 diabetes instead of type 2.
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Diabetes And Your Child
For a parent whose child is diagnosed with a life-long condition, the job of parenting becomes even tougher.
Although being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes will involve coming to terms with the diagnosis, getting used to treatment and making;changes to;everyday life, your child can still lead a normal and healthy life.
Diabetes In Older People
Diabetes is a serious disease, and it affects many older adults. People get diabetes when their blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. The good news is that you can take steps to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes, which is the most common form of the disease to develop in older adults. If you already have diabetes, there are steps you can take to manage the condition and prevent diabetes-related health problems.
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What Sort Of Diet Should Children With Diabetes Eat
Diabetics can eat exactly the same food as normal people: it is a myth that they can only eat food with no sugar for instance. However, diet is an extremely important consideration for any diabetic, particularly young diabetics.
A dietician will be able to advise you further, but it is certainly essential that your child has a balanced and healthy diet, high in complex carbohydrates and fibre.
Although you will have to build your family meals around your diabetic relation, there is no reason why this has to be a problem. A healthy diet benefits anyone.
The quantities of food that your child can enjoy depend entirely on his or her size and age, and will be established by the dietician and parents.
It is up to both you and your child to understand how their body copes with different foods, avoiding the ones that are negative.
It is necessary to be careful with sweet food, but it need not be 100 per cent off the menu.
Do Not Miss The Symptoms
Children and adolescents with diabetes usually experience four main symptoms, but many children will only have one or two. In some cases, they may show no symptoms at all.
If a child suddenly becomes more thirsty or tired or urinates more than usual, their parents may not consider diabetes a possibility.
This might also be the case for doctors, since diabetes is less common among very young children. They may attribute the symptoms to other, more common illnesses. For this reason, they may not diagnose diabetes straight away.
It is important to be aware of the possible signs and symptoms of diabetes in children in order to get a diagnosis and treatment plan as soon as possible.
One of the most serious consequences of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes is DKA. The sections below will look at this, and other complications, in more detail.
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Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Reversed
Type 2 diabetes can be a life-long, chronic disease in which the body either does not produce enough insulin or the cells in out body doesnt respond to insulin correctly. Because of these two problems, there isnt enough insulin to move the glucose from the blood into the cells. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, the bodys cells cant function properly.;
Type 2 diabetes is more likely to occur in people who are over the age of 40, overweight, or have a family history in diabetes. Certain ethnic and racial groups also have higher risk for type 2 diabetes, including black, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American and Pacific Islander. However, over the past decade the incidence of type2 diabetes has been increasing in adolescents and the young adult population.
According to recent research, type 2 diabetes cannot be cured, but individuals can have glucose levels that return to non-diabetes range, or pre-diabetes glucose level The primary means by which people with type 2 diabetes achieve remission is by losing significant amounts of weight.
We talk of remission and not a cure because it isnt permanent. The beta cells have been damaged and the underlying genetic factors contributing to the persons susceptibility to diabetes remain intact. Over time the disease process reasserts itself and continued destruction of the beta cells ensues. An environmental insult such as weight gain can bring back the symptomatic glucose intolerance.
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The complications of this blood glucose disorder can be deeply upsetting. As a general internist and former primary care physician, I have seen patients experience blindness from diabetic retinopathy; attend dialysis three times per week because of diabetic nephropathy-induced kidney failure; and become wheelchair-bound after undergoing below-the-knee amputations caused by severe nerve and arterialdamage.
Why Is Diabetes Affecting More And More Young Adults?
Dr. Naveed Sattar from the University of Glasgow thinks it could be that we are simply doing a better job of screening for the type 2 diabetes at a younger age. But the study found that nearly 75% of the younger adults had alarmingly high levels of the bad LDL cholesterol, a known risk factor. Yet only 4% were taking lipid-lowering medications like statins.
In addition, the study showed that 3/4 of young adults were obese compared to less than half of those diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in their 70s.
Oscar-winning actress, Halle Berry, was diagnosed with diabetes at age 22. She has since reversed … the illness.
Another striking pattern: females in the youngest age group had a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes compared to women 40-60. A known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes confers a nearly 6-fold higher rate of occlusive vascular mortality in women aged 35-59, according to Anna Norhammar in The Lancet.
Prevention and Treatment Work!
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Creating A Diabetes Management Plan
Durbin has made important lifestyle changes now that hes living with type 2 diabetes. For starters, he checks his blood glucose at least four times a day: when he wakes up, before he goes to bed at night, and before and after at least one meal. Depending on his activities, on some days he tests even more frequently.
Diabetes management for teens and young people also includes taking medication. Like many other people living with type 2 diabetes, Durbin began his treatment with oral medication. After metformin, glipizide, , and all produced negative side effects, he began using injectable medication. For the past year, he’s taken an injection of Byetta before breakfast and dinner each day and just recently has added an injection of Lantus insulin to his daily routine.
He has also has made over his eating and exercising habits now, he aims to eat 1,500 to 1,800 calories a day and takes walks.
Understanding Type 1 Diabetes
If your child has type 1 diabetes, it means their pancreas — an organ in the upper-right side of the belly — makes little or no insulin. The condition is an autoimmune disorder, which means it happens when the bodyâs defense system attacks and destroys cells that make insulin.
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Are You Eligible For An Nhs Health Check
Whether you have any other risk factors or not, if youre over 40 your risk of type 2 diabetes and other conditions is higher. If you’re aged 40 to 74 and living in England you may be eligible for a free NHS Health Check.
It’s a great way to check your health and get personalised advice on keeping yourself healthy and active.;
Find out more about the health check;on the NHS website, or talk to your GP for more information.
What Kind Of Exercise Should Children With Diabetes Do
Exercise is the second major factor in controlling type 2 diabetes, and it is incredibly important for all children suffering from diabetes. Recommendations stand that children with diabetes should try to exercise every day. However, parents should be aware that physical activity lowers blood sugar levels.
It may be necessary for your child to reduce their dose of insulin, as in conjunction with exercise it can significantly lower blood sugar levels and result in hypos. When carrying out physical exercise your child should be near sugar.
Physical activity also governs how much your child can eat.
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Who Is More Likely To Develop Type 2 Diabetes
You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, type 2 diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older, have a family history of diabetes, or are overweight or obese. Diabetes is more common in people who are African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American, or Pacific Islander.
Physical inactivity and certain health problems such as high blood pressure affect your chances of developing type 2 diabetes. You are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you have prediabetes or had gestational diabetes when you were pregnant. Learn more about risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
Is Type 1 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease
When type 1 diabetes is triggered by a virus, someone predisposed to autoimmune conditions may develop an autoimmune response. This means that their bodys immune system will start attacking its own cells. In type 1 diabetes, the body attacks the beta cells in the pancreas that are responsible for producing insulin.
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Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Prevented
Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes can sometimes be prevented. Excessive weight gain, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle are all things that put a person at risk for type 2 diabetes.
In the past, type 2 diabetes usually happened only in adults. But now, more kids and teens are being;diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, due to the rapidly increasing number of overweight kids.
Although kids and teens might be able to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes by managing their weight and increasing physical activity, other risk factors for type 2 diabetes can’t be changed. Kids with;one or more family members with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for the disease, and some ethnic and racial groups are more likely to developing it.
Can Eating Too Much Sugar Cause Type 2 Diabetes
Cardiovascular health conditions, such as having high blood pressure, a low level of;HDL;;cholesterol, a high level of;triglycerides in your blood or a history of;heart disease;or;stroke, are also associated with type 2 diabetes. So is having depression or polycystic ovary syndrome.
The influence of family history on whether you will develop diabetes is better established with type 2 than it is with type 1, says Alvarado. If you look at people who have type 2 diabetes, they are more likely to have people in their family that also have diabetes, or have obesity, or other risk factors. But she cautions that its hard to know if that influence is due to genes alone or a shared environment and lifestyle.;; It could also be that what they are sharing is not a genetic variation. Maybe they are sharing their diet or a lack of access to opportunities for exercise, depending on where they live, says Alvarado.
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Financial Support And Benefits
Some people with diabetes may be eligible to receive disability benefits and incapacity benefits, depending on the impact the condition has on their life.
The main groups likely to qualify for welfare benefits are children, elderly people, people with learning disabilities or mental health problems, and those with;complications of diabetes.
People over 65 who are severely disabled, may qualify for a type of disability benefit called;Attendance Allowance.
Carers may also be entitled to some benefit too, depending on their involvement in caring for the person with diabetes.
Staff at your local;Citizens Advice Bureau ;can check whether you’re getting all of the benefits you’re entitled to. Both they and your diabetes specialist nurse should also be able to give you advice about filling in the forms.
You Might Have Nerve Pain
The longer you have diabetes, the higher your risk for nerve damage and pain, known as diabetic neuropathy.
Nerve damage can happen in your hands and feet , or in the nerves that control organs in your body .
Symptoms may include:
- numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in the hands or feet
- loss of balance or coordination
- muscle weakness
- bladder problems, such as incomplete bladder emptying
- erectile dysfunction
Schedule regular checkups with the specialists your doctor recommends to make sure youre reducing your chance of complications.
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Managing Type 2 Diabetes
Many people with type 2 diabetes can manage their blood glucose levels with diet and exercise alone. Others may need diabetes pills or insulin injections, along with medicines to manage other conditions like high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Over time, a person with diabetes may need both lifestyle changes and medication.
Once youve been told you have diabetes, a health care team will work with you to create a diabetes management plan. Your plan will be based on your lifestyle, preferences, health goals, and other health conditions you have.
As part of your plan, your doctor may prescribe one or more medications. Other health care professionals may also be involved. For example, a diabetes educator may help you understand diabetes and provide support as you make lifestyle changes to manage your diabetes. A dietitian may help with meal planning. An exercise coach may help you become more physically active.
What Causes Diabetes
If you have diabetes, your body doesnt produce or use insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body convert glucose into energy and store excess glucose in your liver. When your body doesnt produce or use insulin the way it should, glucose builds up in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose levels can lead to serious health complications.
Youre at increased risk of developing diabetes if you:
- are over the age of 40
- are overweight
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