Side Effects Of Abnormal Insulin Levels
Since the insulin is so important to us, it’s vital to maintain normal insulin level. But what if you have abnormal insulin levels?
Side Effects of Low Insulin Levels
The blood sugar level can become elevated if there are reduced amounts of insulin secreted into the blood or the body cells become desensitized to insulin . If this is not carefully managed, patients may develop problems such as kidney disease, nerve damage or loss of vision.
Side Effects of Excessive Insulin
The side effects of excessive blood insulin include:
- You may experience increased hunger, together with cravings for sugar and carb-rich food. In turn, you will gain weight.
- Reduced levels of the mineral magnesium in your body cells. Magnesium is needed to relax your blood vessels and promote good blood circulation.
- Increased retention of sodium, which in turn results in body water retention, leading to hypertension.
- Lowered levels of beneficial high density lipoprotein , and increased levels of harmful low density lipoprotein and triglycerides. All these factors contribute to the development of heart disease.
- Increased quantities of inflammatory compounds in the bloodstream. These can directly damage the walls of blood vessels and promote the formation of clots, which could result in respiratory failure or a heart attack.
- A possible higher risk of cancer. This is because insulin promotes cell proliferation.
- Fatty liver, polycystic ovary syndrome and increased blood pressure can also happen.
What Are The Different Kinds Of Insulin
There are two different ways in which insulin can be classified.
Origin: Is the insulin derived from animal sources, such as beef and/or pork, or human sources in a laboratory? This can be important, as a drug order may specify the origin of the prescribed insulin, because some patients respond more effectively to insulin from one source rather than another.
Action: How quickly does the insulin take effect? There are now four basic action speeds of insulin:
Rapid Action: The most rapidly-acting insulins are relatively new; of the two brands available, one has been around for 5 years and the other, 10 years . These insulins begin to work in 5-10 minutes, peak in 1-1.5 hours, and end in 3-5 hours. These rapid-acting insulins are taken at the beginning of a meal to counteract the rise in blood sugar due to eating, or they are used to lower blood sugar levels quickly when they are too high. The names lispro and insulin aspart both indicate rapid-action insulins.
Fast Action: Fast-acting insulin begins to work in about half an hour, peak in 2.5 to 5 hours, and then end in about 8 hours. Fast action insulins are often taken about a half hour before a meal, to counteract the rise in blood sugar that follows. The names Regular and Semilente both indicate fast-action insulins. To see a visual illustration of the difference in action between rapid and fast-acting insulins, see the charts below which show insulin levels over time in hours after an insulin injection:
Units To Milligrams Insulin Conversion
The conversion factor for human insulin is: One International Unit equals 0.0347 mg of insulin.
International Units are far easier to understand, especially when it comes to dosing, for insulin. Having a prescription say ‘inject ten units’ is easier to comprehend than ‘inject 0.347 mg’.
Similarly, when listed as a concentration, such as the commonly used U100 , units correspond tidily with a volume .
Nevertheless, if you are so inclined to convert between units of insulin and milligrams, you can use this handy conversion tool:
Insulin: Units To Mg Tool
Type a value in any of the fields to convert between Insulin measurements:
*Note: The tool rounds to the ‘hundredths’ place for milligrams
Total Daily Insulin Requirement:
= 500 ÷ TDI = 1unit insulin/ 12 g CHO
This example above assumes that you have a constant response to insulin throughout the day. In reality, individual insulin sensitivity varies. Someone who is resistant in the morning, but sensitive at mid-day, will need to adjust the insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio at different meal times. In such a case, the background insulin dose would still be approximately 20 units; however, the breakfast insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio might be breakfast 1:8 grams, lunch 1:15 grams and dinner 1:12 grams.
The insulin to carbohydrate ratio may vary during the day.
Combination With Other Antidiabetic Drugs
A combination therapy of insulin and other antidiabetic drugs appears to be most beneficial in people who are diabetic, who still have residual insulin secretory capacity. A combination of insulin therapy and is more effective than insulin alone in treating people with type 2 diabetes after secondary failure to oral drugs, leading to better glucose profiles and/or decreased insulin needs.
How To Count The Units On An Insulin Needle
Insulin injections are an inevitable part of daily life for people who have Type 1 diabetes, or those using insulin to control blood sugar levels. By combining a healthy diet, exercise, glucose monitoring, and insulin, diabetics can maintain a better overall quality of life. With a bit of concentration and a steady hand, nearly anyone can draw up the correct dosage of insulin, which will help you maintain control over your blood glucose levels.
Things Youll Need
- Alcohol swab
Drawing up the correct dose
Tips & Warnings
- Make sure there are no air bubbles trapped in the barrel of the syringe. If there are, gently flick the barrel with your finger, until the bubble floats to the top of the syringe. Once the air bubble is closest to the needle, push the plunger up slightly, just until the bubbles are no longer present. Continue to draw up your dosage of insulin.
- Consult your doctor when first beginning insulin injections.
Important Safety Information For Soliqua 100/33 100 Units/ml And 33 Mcg/ml
What is the most important information I should know about SOLIQUA 100/33?
Do not share your SOLIQUA 100/33 pen with other people, even if the needle has been changed. You may give other people a serious infection, or get a serious infection from them.
SOLIQUA 100/33 can cause serious side effects, including inflammation of the pancreas, which may be severe and lead to death.
Before using SOLIQUA 100/33, tell your doctor if you have had pancreatitis, stones in your gallbladder , or a history of alcoholism. These medical problems may make you more likely to get pancreatitis.
Stop taking SOLIQUA 100/33 and call your healthcare provider right away if you have pain in your stomach area that is severe, and will not go away. The pain may be felt in the back area. The pain may happen with or without vomiting.
Who should not use SOLIQUA 100/33?
Do not use SOLIQUA 100/33 if you:
- are having an episode of low blood sugar
- are allergic to insulin glargine, lixisenatide, or any of the ingredients in SOLIQUA 100/33. Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction with SOLIQUA 100/33 may include swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat, fainting or feeling dizzy, problems breathing or swallowing, very rapid heartbeat, severe rash or itching, or low blood pressure.
Before using SOLIQUA 100/33, tell your healthcare provider about all your medical conditions, including if you:
How should I use SOLIQUA 100/33?
What are the possible side effects of SOLIQUA 100/33?
Example #1: Carbohydrate Coverage At A Meal
First, you have to calculate the carbohydrate coverage insulin dose using this formula:
CHO insulin dose = Total grams of CHO in the meal ÷ grams of CHO disposed by 1 unit of insulin .
For Example #1, assume:
- You are going to eat 60 grams of carbohydrate for lunch
- Your Insulin: CHO ratio is 1:10
To get the CHO insulin dose, plug the numbers into the formula:
CHO insulin dose =
- The carbohydrate coverage dose is 6 units of rapid acting insulin.
- The high blood sugar correction dose is 2 units of rapid acting insulin.
Now, add the two doses together to calculate your total meal dose.
Carbohydrate coverage dose + high sugar correction dose = 8 units total meal dose!
The total lunch insulin dose is 8 units of rapid acting insulin.
What Are Normal Insulin Levels
Your insulin levels will be typically measured in micro units per milliliter . However, experts often disagree on what should be the “ideal” levels of glucose.
According to Health Central, the levels should be about 10-20 mcU/ml, while a Dr. Mercola says the normal levels should be under 5 mcU/ml. However, according to Stephen Guyenet, a researcher from University of Washington, the average blood insulin levels in the American population are 8.4 mIU/ml for women and 8.6 mIU/ml for men, but given the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders in the US, the ideal level is probably between 2-6 mcU/ml.
Insulin levels are often assessed after fast for some time. One study, carried out in Arizona, found that women who had a fasting insulin level of 8 mcU/ml were more than twice as likely to develop prediabetes as those with 5 mcU/ml insulin levels. Women with 25 mcU/ml fasting insulin level had over 5 times the risk of prediabetes than women with 5 mcU/ml insulin level.
Of course, the amount of insulin in the bloodstream will fluctuate in accordance with the levels of glucose. For more information on this, read the table below :
Normal Insulin Level
3 hours or more after glucose
< 25 mIU/L
*SI Units: Conversional units x 6.945
The High Blood Sugar Correction Factor:
Correction Factor = 1800 ÷Total Daily Insulin Dose = 1 unit of insulin will reduce the blood sugar so many mg/dl
This can be calculated using the Rule of 1800.
= 1800 ÷ TDI = 1 unit insulin will drop reduce the blood sugar level by 45 mg/dl
While the calculation is 1 unit will drop the blood sugar 45 mg/dl, to make it easier most people will round up or round down the number so the suggested correction factor may be 1 unit of rapid acting insulin will drop the blood sugar 40-50 mg/dl.
Please keep in mind, the estimated insulin regimen is an initial best guess and the dose may need to be modified to keep your blood sugar on target.
Also, there are many variations of insulin therapy. You will need to work out your specific insulin requirements and dose regimen with your medical provider and diabetes team.
Throw Away Insulin And Use A New Vial Pen Or Cartridge If:
Insulin has been left where it is very hot or very cold.
Insulin is cloudy or contains particles.
It is later than the expiration date on the vial, pen, or cartridge.
It has been more than 28 days since you began using the vial, pen, or cartridge.
Put a label on your pen, vial, or cartridge with date opened.
- Insulin vials have U-100 insulin. That means there are 100 units of insulin in each milliliter of insulin.
- Humalog® insulin comes in 3 mL vials or 10 mL vials.
- All other types of insulin come in 10 mL vials. Insulin pens or cartridges come in boxes of five 3 mL pens or cartridges.
Humalog 100 Units/ml Solution For Injection In Vial
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Humalog 100 units/ml solution for injection in vial
Humalog 100 units/ml solution for injection in cartridge
Humalog 100 units/ml KwikPen solution for injection in a pre-filled pen
Humalog 100 units/ml Junior KwikPen solution for injection in a pre-filled pen
Humalog 100 units/ml Tempo Pen solution for injection in a pre-filled pen
Each ml contains 100 units of insulin lispro* .
Each vial contains 1000 units insulin lispro in 10 ml solution.
Each cartridge contains 300 units of insulin lispro in 3 ml solution.
KwikPen and Tempo Pen
Each pre-filled pen contains 300 units of insulin lispro in 3 ml solution.
Each pre-filled pen delivers 1- 60 units in steps of 1 unit.
Each pre-filled pen contains 300 units of insulin lispro in 3 ml solution.
Each Junior KwikPen delivers 0.5 30 units in steps of 0.5 units.
*produced in E.coli by recombinant DNA technology.
For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
For the treatment of adults and children with diabetes mellitus who require insulin for the maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis. Humalog is also indicated for the initial stabilisation of diabetes mellitus.
The dose should be determined by the physician, according to the requirement of the patient.
Humalog 100 units/ml Junior KwikPen is suitable for patients who may benefit from finer insulin dose adjustments.
Insulin Sensitivity Factor Or Correction Dose
To create an Insulin Sensitivity Factor for RAPID insulin:
- 100/TDD = number of mmol/L 1 unit rapid will lower glucose level.E.g. 100/50 units TDD = 2 1 unit will drop glucose by about 2 mmol/L
To create an Insulin Sensitivity Factor for REGULAR insulin:
- 83/TDD = number of mmol/L 1 unit regular insulin will lower glucose level. E.g. 83/30 units TDD = about 3. 1 unit will lower glucose by about 3 mmol/L
To use an ISF:
- / ISF= units to give to correct high glucose reading
- e.g. If current BG 13 mmol/L , ISF is 2 and target is 7 mmol then:13 mmol/L – 7 mmol/L = 6 / ISF 2 = 3 units for correction
- To create and adjust a correction scale, see the
Insulin Analogs Vs Human Insulin
There is also another, very important reason, why insulin products aren’t listed in milligrams and that has to do with the existence of Insulin analogs.
Insulin analogs and human insulin technically use the same conversion and are considered ‘equipotent’.
Nevertheless, there are significant differences in the pharmacokinetic profiles of each .
- Regular insulin .
- NPH insulin .
Regular human insulin products are considered ‘fast-acting’, with an onset of action around 30 minutes. High concentration regular human insulin , have a slightly faster onset of action and duration of action.
NPH insulin is also known as isophane insulin and is intermediate-acting. It is regular human insulin with added zinc and protamine, which causes a delay in absorption and prolongs the duration of action.
Insulin analogs are altered forms of insulin and are manufactured via genetic engineering. Analogs are created in such a way to alter their pharmacokinetic characteristics from human insulin.
For example, there are several ‘rapid’ acting insulin analogs, and have a faster onset of action than human insulin products. These include:
Conversions Between Human And Analog Insulin
Although all insulin products are considered ‘equipotent’ in regard to the fact that 1 unit of each equals 0.0347 mg, as described above, they have significant differences in their onset of action, time to peak effect, and duration of action.
First Some Basic Things To Know About Insulin:
- Approximately 40-50% of the total daily insulin dose is to replace insulin overnight, when you are fasting and between meals. This is called background or basal insulin replacement. The basal or background insulin dose usually is constant from day to day.
- The other 50-60% of the total daily insulin dose is for carbohydrate coverage and high blood sugar correction. This is called the bolus insulin replacement.
Bolus Carbohydrate coverage
The bolus dose for food coverage is prescribed as an insulin to carbohydrate ratio.The insulin to carbohydrate ratio represents how many grams of carbohydrate are covered or disposed of by 1 unit of insulin.
Generally, one unit of rapid-acting insulin will dispose of 12-15 grams of carbohydrate. This range can vary from 6-30 grams or more of carbohydrate depending on an individuals sensitivity to insulin. Insulin sensitivity can vary according to the time of day, from person to person, and is affected by physical activity and stress.
Bolus High blood sugar correction
The bolus dose for high blood sugar correction is defined as how much one unit of rapid-acting insulin will drop the blood sugar.
Generally, to correct a high blood sugar, one unit of insulin is needed to drop the blood glucose by 50 mg/dl. This drop in blood sugar can range from 30-100 mg/dl or more, depending on individual insulin sensitivities, and other circumstances.
Evolution And Species Distribution
Insulin may have originated more than a billion years ago. The molecular origins of insulin go at least as far back as the simplest unicellular . Apart from animals, insulin-like proteins are also known to exist in the Fungi and Protista kingdoms.
Insulin is produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets in most vertebrates and by the Brockmann body in some teleost fish.Cone snailsConus geographus and Conus tulipa, venomous sea snails that hunt small fish, use modified forms of insulin in their venom cocktails. The insulin toxin, closer in structure to fishes’ than to snails’ native insulin, slows down the prey fishes by lowering their blood glucose levels.
Why We Can Use Iu As Insulin Unit
IU stands for International Units and is used for the measurement of drugs and vitamins. Since each substance would have a different conversion ratio, we cannot put up a conversion for IU to milligrams that covers everything, or even most things. In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances. International units are used to quantify vitamins, hormones, some medications, vaccines, blood products, and similar biologically active substances.Continue reading >>
Regulator Of Endocannabinoid Metabolism
Insulin is a major regulator of and insulin treatment has been shown to reduce ECs, the and , which correspond with insulin-sensitive expression changes in enzymes of EC metabolism. In insulin-resistant , patterns of insulin-induced enzyme expression is disturbed in a manner consistent with elevated EC and reduced EC degradation. Findings suggest that adipocytes fail to regulate EC metabolism and decrease intracellular EC levels in response to insulin stimulation, whereby insulin-resistant individuals exhibit increased concentrations of ECs. This dysregulation contributes to excessive visceral fat accumulation and reduced release from abdominal adipose tissue, and further to the onset of several cardiometabolic risk factors that are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes.
, also known as “low blood sugar”, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels. This may result in a variety of including clumsiness, trouble talking, confusion, loss of consciousness, or death. A feeling of hunger, sweating, shakiness and weakness may also be present. Symptoms typically come on quickly.
How Much Does 1 Unit Of Insulin Bring Your Sugar Down
Question Originally asked by Community Member karen How Much Does 1 Unit Of Insulin Bring Your Sugar Down Using a chart to give my mother her insulin, sometimes it just seams its not bringing her sugar down to a lower level. Answer The âcorrection factorâ is the term used for the amount of insulin a person needs in order to bring their blood sugar down to 120. It is different for everyone! Your motherâs endocrinologist should have a note of what this dose has been in the past, but you can also figure this out purely by conducting SAFE trial and error. If her blood sugar is at 200, try giving her one unit of insulin and test her blood sugar a half hour later, and then an hour later. If itâs still high, give another. For example, in MY body, if my blood sugar is at 200, I take two units of insulin to bring it down to 100 to 120. If I was going to be doing any exercise also at this time, i would only take one unit as my âcorrection factorâ because the exercise would help bring the blood sugar down, too. Ginger You should know Answers to your question are meant to provide general health information but should not replace medical advice you receive from a doctor. No answers should be viewed as a diagnosis or recommended treatment for a condition.Continue reading >>
You’ll Need To Calculate Some Of Your Insulin Doses
You’ll also need to know some basic things about insulin. For example, 40-50% of the total daily insulin dose is to replace insulin overnight.
Your provider will prescribe an insulin dose regimen for you; however, you still need to calculate some of your insulin doses. Your insulin dose regimen provides formulas that allow you to calculate how much bolus insulin to take at meals and snacks, or to correct high blood sugars.
Using A Cf To Correct A 2 Hour Post Meal Blood Sugar
Correcting for a high blood sugar 2 hours after eating is using your best estimate!
Things to consider:
- how your insulin works
- the type of meal you ate – high fat carbohydrate meal vs. high fibre, low fat carbohydrate meal
- is it the type of meal that makes your blood sugars higher than usual for a longer than usual time, or
- is it the type of where your blood sugars return to normal within the 2 hours
Remember how your insulin works insulin action or duration of effect.
- starts: 10-15 minutes
How To Convert U
Insulin is an injectable medication used to treat diabetes mellitus in dogs, cats, and other animal species. It is available in a variety of types and strengths. There are also different sizes of insulin syringes that are made to go with the varying types of insulin.
KEY POINT: There are different types of insulin syringes. It is critical to match the correct syringe with the accompanying type of insulin to administer an accurate dose.
The best way to ensure that you give the correct amount of insulin to your cat or dog is to understand the strength and type of insulin and use the syringe that is made to go with the applicable insulin.
They may be instances where you are unable to match your syringe and insulin type, due to lack of availability or an emergency. This article is designed to help pet owners accurately convert insulin units to ml.
How To Lower Insulin Levels
Low insulin level can be mended by taking insulin injection. But cases of excessive insulin level are common and hard to deal with, so we will further talk about lowering and maintaining normal insulin levels.
1. Change Your Diet
To lower your levels of insulin, try eating more dark green vegetables and whole-grain foods rich in fiber. Avoid alcohol and anything containing refined sugar or trans-fats. Patients who followed these guidelines had decreased fasting insulin levels and female patients had lowered insulin resistance. For men, reducing the waist circumference may have a role in decreasing blood insulin levels and insulin resistance.
2. Lower Your Glycemic Index
Exercise can enhance insulin-mediated uptake of glucose into muscle tissue, and therefore reduce the body’s need for insulin. Physical activity is particularly effective when combined with a low glycemic index diet, which can also reduce the body’s insulin requirements. The glycemic index measures the effect of a particular food on blood glucose levels. One study showed that obese older adults with prediabetes lost weight and decreased their blood insulin after both exercising and eating low-GI food.
3. Take Some Medication
Definition Of 1 Unit Of Rapid Insulin
How is insulin measured?
- Insulin is measured in units. Insulin is available in “U100” or “U500”. U100 is the most common type of insulin. It has 100 units of insulin in 1 mL of solution. You must inject U100 insulin with U100 syringes. U500 insulin has 500 units of insulin in 1 mL. This type of insulin is rarely used, and mainly for people who are insulin-resistant. Insulin resistance is a condition where a person’s body cannot respond to and use insulin as it should. A special type of syringe is needed for U500 insulin.
What Are Normal Levels Of Insulin
Many people carefully monitor their glucose levels for signs of diabetes, but how many do the same with insulin levels? Your body requires constant circulation of insulin in the blood all the time, even when you’re not eating. The level of insulin circulating in your bloodstream is a good indication of your overall health and may be able to predict your risk of sudden death, so it’s really useful to know your insulin levels. But what levels of insulin are normal, and how do you know when things have gone awry?