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Can You Be Born With Type 2 Diabetes

We Know Some People Get Confused Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes And Were Often Asked About The Differences Between Them

Although type 1 and type 2 diabetes both have stuff in common, there are lots of differences. Like what causes them, who they affect, and how you should manage them. There are other types of diabetes like gestational and MODY. But this page is mainly about the differences between type 1 and type 2.  

For a start, type 1 affects 8% of everyone with diabetes. While type 2 diabetes affects about 90%.

Lots of people get confused between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This can mean you have to explain that what works for one type doesn’t work for the other, and that there are different causes.  

The main thing to remember is that both are as serious as each other. Having high blood glucose levels can lead to serious health complications, no matter whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. So if you have either condition, you need to take the right steps to manage it. 

It’s World Diabetes Day On November 14 Here Are The Answers To Some Faqs On Gestational Diabetes

November 14 is World Diabetes Day. As obesity in India increases, women are becoming more susceptible to diabetes. Diabetes in pregnancy can affect the health of both the mother and her unborn child. If the diabetes is not well-controlled, there is an increased chance for miscarriage, birth defects and other problems in the pregnancy.

There are three types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes which requires daily insulin injections for control, Type 2 diabetes which is usually controlled with diet, exercise and tablets, and gestational diabetes which is diabetes first detected in pregnancy.

Here are a few frequently asked questions about diabetes and pregnancy:

How does gestational diabetes differ from Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes?

Will my baby develop diabetes?

Babies born to mothers with diabetes are not born with diabetes. If the mother’s diabetes was not well-controlled during pregnancy, the baby will produce large quantities of insulin while still in the womb. This can lead to low blood sugar levels immediately after birth and the baby must be watched very closely until its body adjusts to the amount of insulin it makes.

Large babies are more likely to become obese and to develop Type 2 diabetes later in life. Unless they are trained to develop healthy eating and regular exercise habits as they grow up, they have a greater chance for obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

Does the father’s diabetes affect the pregnancy?

How does pregnancy affect a woman with diabetes?

Is Genetic Testing Useful For Diabetes Why It Depends On The Form Of The Disease

The genetic mutations that cause diabetes involve the proteins responsible for insulin production or the ability of the body to use insulin. Mutations cause the proteins to function improperly. Genetic testing can identify these mutations in certain cases, but the usefulness of the information they provide varies. First, it depends on whether the form of diabetes is monogenic or polygenic.

Research And Statistics: How Many People Have Type 1 Diabetes And Who Are They

Type 1 affects people of all ages. Here are some more facts and figures on type 1 diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes affects at least 1.4 million adults ages 20 years or older — or 5.2 percent of all adults who have been diagnosed with diabetes, according to the CDC.
  • The agency also reports that at least 187,000 youth under age 20 have type 1 diabetes.
  • Each year there is an estimated 64,000 new cases of type 1 diabetes in people under age 64 in the United States , according to a 2017 study published in BMC Medicine.
  • Type 1 diabetes treatment can be very expensive. The average yearly cost spent on insulin by people with type 1 diabetes was $5,705 in 2016, according to Health Care Cost Institute.

Doctors Group Issues New A1c Guidelines For People With Type 2 Diabetes

Diabete Mellitus: Type 1, type 2 and gestational

Yet Weissman thinks that in time, polygenic risk scoring — which looks at common genetic variations known as single nucleotide polymorphisms — will be a more useful diagnostic tool. This is particularly the case with type 2 diabetes, which is preventable through healthy diet and lifestyle choices.

“Based on a combination of what SNPs people have, researchers can provide a score of whether they are at low, average or high-risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In theory, that information will allow people to take action in terms of making changes to their diet exercise program, or potentially smoking.” he says. They will be able to use the risk scoring to make lifestyle changes that will lessen their probability of developing type 2 diabetes.

Association Of Birth Weight And Type 2 Diabetes In Rochester Minnesota

  • James P. Burke, PHD,
  • Jessica Forsgren, BS,
  • Pasquale J. Palumbo, MD,
  • Kent R. Bailey, PHD,
  • Jay Desai, MPH,
  • Heather Devlin, MA and
  • Cynthia L. Leibson, PHD
  • 1Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
  • 2Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona
  • 3Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul, Minnesota
  • Address correspondence and reprint requests to James P. Burke, PhD, Department of Health Sciences Research, Harwick 6, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St., SW, Rochester, MN 55905. E-mail: jburkemayo.edu
  • https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.10.2512

    There is renewed interest in the relationship between birth weight and type 2 diabetes. Previous case-control studies of elderly European residents showed a linear association between low birth weight and type 2 diabetes. More recent cohort studies in Pima Indians have shown a U-shaped curve between birth weight and diabetes, where both low and high birth weight were shown to increase the risk for developing type 2 diabetes. In addition, a few studies found an association between high birth weight and type 2 diabetes in Caucasian populations. Using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project , we examined the association of birth weight and type 2 diabetes in individuals who were born and developed type 2 diabetes while residing in Rochester, Minnesota.

    What Is Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms Causes Diagnosis And Treatment

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that leads the body to stop making enough insulin to keep glucose at a healthy, normal level. It is most often diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can develop at any age, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases .

    Whats The Difference Between Ketosis And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    It’s important to seek immediate medical attention for DKA, and it may involve a hospital trip. A blood or urine test for ketones can detect DKA. Treatment involves insulin injections and fluid replacement.

    Frequently, a bout of DKA is what leads to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, particularly in young people. Dr. Dutta says this can happen to anyone with type 1 diabetes at any age, but if a person develops the disease in their middle or later years, the progression is typically more gradual and they are therefore more likely to already be under a doctor’s care for high blood sugar.

    When Cgm Service Fails: 5 Tips For A Creating A Backup Plan

    “When an insulin pump and CGM are integrated, the CGM can deliver information to the pump about the patient’s current blood sugar level and the trend of the blood sugar. This allows the pump to potentially alter insulin delivery to help maintain blood sugars more within a healthy range,” says Thomas. “While the patient still needs to be very involved with his or her own diabetes management, these devices offer a helping hand.”

    What Are The Risk Factors For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

    Risk factors for type 1 diabetes include:

    • Family history: People with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes have a higher risk of developing it themselves.
    • Age: Type 1 diabetes can appear at any age, but it’s most common among children and adolescents.
    • Geography: The prevalence of type 1 diabetes increases the farther away you are from the equator.
    • Genetics: The presence of certain genes points to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes.

    You’re at risk of developing type 2 diabetes if you:

    • have prediabetes, or slightly elevated blood sugar levels
    • are carrying excess weight or have obesity
    • are Black, Hispanic, American Indian, or Alaska Native
    • have an immediate family member with type 2 diabetes

    Insulin Resistance And Insufficient Insulin Production

    Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes means the signal insulin gives to a cell is weakened. This results in less glucose uptake by muscle and fat cells and a reduction in insulin mediated activities inside cells. Compounding this problem of resistance, there is additional defect in insulin production and secretion by the insulin producing cells, the beta cells in the pancreas.

    As a group, everyone with with type 2 diabetes has both insulin resistance and an inability to overcome the resistance by secreting more insulin. But any given individual with type 2 may have more resistance than insulin insufficiency or the opposite, more insulin insufficiency than resistance. And the problems may be mild or severe. It is believed that the wide range of clinical presentation is because there are many, many genetic causes – and combinations of genetic causes – of type 2 diabetes. At present there is no single genetic test for type 2 diabetes. The diagnosis is made on the basis of the individual having clinical features consistent with type 2 diabetes, and by excluding other forms of diabetes.

    Identifying The Genes Responsible For Type 2 Diabetes

    Studies of twins suggest that type 2 diabetes might be linked to genetics. These studies were complicated by the environmental influences that also affect type 2 diabetes risk.

    To date, numerous mutations have been shown to affect type 2 diabetes risk. The contribution of each gene is generally small. However, each additional mutation you have seems to increase your risk.

    In general, mutations in any gene involved in controlling glucose levels can increase your risk for type 2 diabetes. These include genes that control:

    • the production of glucose
    • the production and regulation of insulin
    • how glucose levels are sensed in the body

    Genes associated with type 2 diabetes risk include:

    • TCF7L2, which affects insulin secretion and glucose production
    • ABCC8, which helps regulate insulin
    • CAPN10, which is associated with type 2 diabetes risk in Mexican Americans
    • GLUT2, which helps move glucose into the pancreas
    • GCGR, a glucagon hormone involved in glucose regulation

    The interactions between genetics and the environment make it difficult to identify a definite cause of type 2 diabetes. However, that doesn’t mean you can’t reduce your risk through modifying your habits.

    The Diabetes Intervention Accentuating Diet and Enhancing Metabolism study a large, 2020 randomized clinical trial of people with type 2 diabetes, suggests that weight loss and increased physical activity can prevent or reverse early type 2 diabetes.

    What Happens When You Have Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

    Can You Be Born With Type 1 Diabetes?

    If you have either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, it means you have too much glucose in your blood. This is the same for both types. But the difference between them is how this happens. 

    If you have type 1 diabetes, it means you have an autoimmune condition. This means your body has attacked and destroyed the cells that make a hormone called insulin. So you can’t make insulin anymore. 

    We all need insulin as it helps take the glucose from our blood into our body’s cells. We then use this glucose for energy. Without insulin, the glucose level in your blood gets too high.

    Type 2 diabetes is different. If you’ve got type 2, either your body doesn’t make enough insulin, or your insulin doesn’t work properly. This is known as insulin resistance. Like type 1, this means the level of glucose in your blood is too high.

    The Emotional Impact Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

    Living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes can sometimes feel overwhelming.

    Both types are different but feeling down or anxious because of your diabetes can affect anyone. It is important to understand that a long-term condition can come with an emotional impact, no matter how it has been caused or how you treat it.

    If you’re struggling with your diabetes, remember that you’re not alone.

    There is lots of support available to you, like our helpline. There you can speak to our highly trained advisors about how you’re feeling. And you can also speak to people who are going through similar experiences on our forum. There are lots of things you can do to help yourself and it’s just about finding what works for you.

    It can be frustrating to explain the differences between type 1 and type 2.

    Both types face confusion over what causes the condition and how it can be treated. This will be slightly different whether you’re type 1 or the more common type 2. Just because something is more common, doesn’t mean it is understood.

    And while it is emotionally draining to constantly correct people, you should also know that you’re not alone. There are many people living with diabetes facing similar questions and struggles, regardless of type. You can reach out to them to give or receive support in the forum and at local groups.

    What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes

    A person can have diabetes without knowing it because the symptoms aren’t always obvious and they can take a long time to develop. Type 1 diabetes may come on gradually or suddenly.

    But kids or teens who develop type 1 diabetes may:

    • Need to pee a lot. The kidneys respond to high levels of glucose in the blood by flushing out the extra glucose in urine . Kids with high blood sugar levels need to pee more often and make more pee.
    • Drink a lot of liquids. Because they’re peeing so often and losing so much fluid, they can become very thirsty and drink a lot in an attempt to keep the levels of body water normal.
    • Feel tired often. This is because the body can’t use glucose for energy properly.
    • Lose weight . Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes may have an increased appetite, but often lose weight because the body breaks down muscle and stored fat in an attempt to provide fuel to the hungry cells.

    In some cases, other symptoms can be the signal that something is wrong. Sometimes the first sign of diabetes is bedwetting in a child who has been dry at night. Diabetes also should be suspected if a girl who hasn’t started puberty yet gets a vaginal yeast infection.

    Can Eating Too Much Sugar Cause Type 2 Diabetes

    Cardiovascular health conditions, such as having high blood pressure, a low level of HDL  cholesterol, a high level of triglycerides in your blood or a history of heart disease or stroke, are also associated with type 2 diabetes. So is having depression or polycystic ovary syndrome.

    The influence of family history on whether you will develop diabetes is better established with type 2 than it is with type 1, says Alvarado. “If you look at people who have type 2 diabetes, they are more likely to have people in their family that also have diabetes, or have obesity, or other risk factors.” But she cautions that it’s hard to know if that influence is due to genes alone or a shared environment and lifestyle.   “It could also be that what they are sharing is not a genetic variation. Maybe they are sharing their diet or a lack of access to opportunities for exercise, depending on where they live,” says Alvarado.

    Can You Be Misdiagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes

    It’s possible for someone with type 2 diabetes to be misdiagnosed. They may have many of the symptoms of type 2 diabetes, but actually have another condition that may be more closely related to type 1 diabetes. This condition is called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults .

    Researchers estimate that between 4 and 14 percent of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes might actually have LADA. Many physicians are still unfamiliar with the condition and will assume a person has type 2 diabetes because of their age and symptoms.

    In general, a misdiagnosis is possible because:

    • both LADA and type 2 diabetes typically develop in adults
    • the initial symptoms of LADA — such as excessive thirst, blurred vision, and high blood sugar — mimic those of type 2 diabetes
    • doctors don’t typically run tests for LADA when diagnosing diabetes
    • initially, the pancreas in people with LADA still produces some insulin
    • diet, exercise, and oral drugs usually used to treat type 2 diabetes work well in people with LADA at first

    As of now, there’s still a lot of uncertainty over how exactly to define LADA and what causes it to develop. The exact cause of LADA is unknown, but researchers have identified certain genes that may play a role.

    LADA may only be suspected after your doctor realizes that you’re not responding well to oral type 2 diabetes medications, diet, and exercise.

    What Is Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults

    Many doctors consider LADA the adult form of type 1 diabetes because it’s also an autoimmune condition.

    As in type 1 diabetes, the islet cells in the pancreas of people with LADA are destroyed. However, this process occurs much more slowly. Once it starts, it can take several months up to several years for the pancreas to stop being able to make insulin.

    Other experts consider LADA somewhere in between type 1 and type 2 and even call it “type 1.5” diabetes. These researchers believe that diabetes can occur along a spectrum.

    Researchers are still trying to figure out the details, but in general, LADA is known to:

    • develop in adulthood
    • have a slower course of onset than type 1 diabetes
    • often occur in people who aren’t overweight
    • often occur in people who don’t have other metabolic issues, such as high blood pressure and high triglycerides
    • result in a positive test for antibodies against the islet cells

    The symptoms of LADA are similar to those of type 2 diabetes, including:

    • excessive thirst

    How Are Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed

    The primary test used to diagnose both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is known as the A1C, or glycated hemoglobin, test.

    This blood test determines your average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months. Your doctor may draw your blood or give you a small finger prick.

    The higher your blood sugar levels have been over the past few months, the higher your A1C level will be. Test results are expressed as a percentage. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher indicates diabetes.

    The A1C test isn’t accurate for people with sickle cell anemia or the sickle cell trait. If you have this condition or trait, then your doctor will have to use a different test.

    Your Glucose Levels During Labour And Birth

    It’s good to keep your glucose level as stable as possible during labour. It is thought that this will help to prevent your baby’s glucose from going low after they are born. This is known as neonatal hypoglycaemia. Your glucose level will be measured regularly throughout labour.

    If your glucose levels are not kept stable, you may be given insulin and glucose through a drip to help. If you have type 1 diabetes, you may be offered an insulin and glucose drip from the start of established labour. Established labour is when your cervix opens to at least 4cm and your contractions become stronger and more regular.

    If you are using pump therapy, you should be able to use your pump during labour if you want to. You or perhaps your partner may find it easier to manage your glucose levels using your pump, rather than switching to an insulin drip.

    “I was told that I’d be taken off the pump when I was ready for the healthcare team to take over. But I stayed in control of it until about an hour before I gave birth, and I went back on it an hour or two after the birth.”Zoe

    Is Diabetes Inherited From Mother Or Father

    Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes

  • Is Diabetes Inherited From Mother or Father? Center
  • Diabetes is a hereditary disease, which means that the child is at high risk of developing diabetes compared to the general population at the given age. Diabetes can be inherited from either mother or father.

    The child’s risk increases:

    • If the father has type 1 diabetes, the risk of the child developing diabetes is 1 in 17.
    • If the mother has type 1 diabetes and:
    • The child was born before she is 25 years old, then the risk is 1 in 25.
    • The child was born after she is 25 years old, the child’s risk is 1 in 100.
  • If the father and mother develop diabetes before the age of 11 years, the child’s risk is between 1 in 10 and 1 in 4, respectively.
  • If the person has diabetes along with thyroid disease, poorly working adrenal gland, and immune system disorder, the child’s risk of developing type 1 diabetes is 1 in 2.
  • Even if diabetes run in families, it is possible to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes in children or youth by following a healthy lifestyle.

    Type 2 diabetes can result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is higher in kids if the mother rather than father has diabetes.

    • If the father has type 2 diabetes, the risk factor is about 30%.
    • If the mother has type 2 diabetes, the risk factor is slightly higher.
    • If both parents have diabetes, the risk factor increases to about 70%.

    Genes associated with type 2 diabetes risk include:

    Managing Type 1 Diabetes: Diet And Exercise

    There is no one-size-fits-all diet or exercise plan for people with type 1 diabetes, according to the JDRF’s UK branch. But a healthy lifestyle will help you keep your blood sugar in a healthy range. Be sure to speak with your doctor before embarking on any diet or exercise plan, to ensure you are making changes that are safe and appropriate for you.

    How Are Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Treated

    There’s no cure for type 1 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin, so it must be regularly injected into the body.

    Some people take injections into soft tissue, such as the stomach, arm, or buttocks, several times per day. Other people use insulin pumps. Insulin pumps supply a steady amount of insulin into the body through a small tube.

    Blood sugar testing is an essential part of managing type 1 diabetes, because levels can go up and down quickly.

    Type 2 diabetes can be managed and even reversed with diet and exercise alone, but many people need extra support. If lifestyle changes aren’t enough, your doctor may prescribe medications that help your body use insulin more effectively.

    Monitoring your blood sugar is an essential part of type 2 diabetes management too. It’s the only way to know if you’re meeting your target levels.

    Your doctor may recommend testing your blood sugar occasionally or more frequently. If your blood sugar levels are high, your doctor may recommend insulin injections.

    Can Type 1 Or Type 2 Be Cured Or Prevented

    Unfortunately, there’s currently no permanent cure for either type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

    But there’s evidence that some people with type 2 can put their diabetes into remission by losing weight. Following a very low-calorie diet under medical supervision, or having surgery are some ways you can put your type 2 diabetes into remission.

    We’re also funding some vital research projects to help transform treatment and care. And to help find a cure for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.


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