Causes Type 1 Diabetes
The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, its thought to be an autoimmune disease. The bodys immune system mistakenly attacks beta cells in the pancreas. These are the cells that make insulin. Scientists dont fully understand why this happens.
Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed through a series of tests.. Some can be conducted quickly, while others require hours of preparation or monitoring.
Type 1 diabetes often develops quickly. People are diagnosed if they meet one of the following criteria:
- fasting blood sugar > 126 mg/dL on two separate tests
- random blood sugar > 200 mg/dL, along with symptoms of diabetes
- hemoglobin A1c > 6.5 on two separate tests
These criteria are also used to diagnose type 2 diabetes. In fact, people with type 1 diabetes are sometimes misdiagnosed as having type 2.
A doctor may not realize youve been misdiagnosed until you begin developing complications or worsening symptoms despite treatment.
When blood sugar gets so high that diabetic ketoacidosis occurs, you become very ill. This is often the reason people end up in the hospital or their doctors office, and type 1 diabetes is then diagnosed.
Further Information And Support
For further information and support contact your doctor, practice nurse, or: Diabetes New Zealand Freephone: 0800 DIABETES Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.diabetes.org.nz Diabetes New Zealand provides education and support resources specifically for young New Zealanders with type 1 diabetes and many of its branches around the country host Type 1 youth support groups.
Kids Health Website: www.kidsheatlh.org.nz
Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes In Adults May Occur Suddenly
Its important to realize that early signs of type 1 diabetes in adults often develop quickly and may sometimes be brushed offor mistaken for illness. Heres what you should look out for:
Frequent UrinationIf youre constantly running to the bathroom, your kidneys may be trying to rid your blood of excess sugar, resulting in an increased need to urinate.
Extreme thirstIncreased urination can then result in dehydration, which will leave you feeling more thirsty than normal.
Increased appetiteIf youre suddenly hungry all the time it may be because your body isnt able to get proper energy from the food you eat.
Unexpected weight lossAlong the same lines, if your body is losing sugar in your urine instead of absorbing it, you may lose weight without trying.
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What To Watch For
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes in infants and children can start very suddenly. Keep an eye out for these signs in your baby or child:
- Sudden strange behavior
- Breath that smells fruity, sweet, or like wine
- Extreme drowsiness or lack of energy
- Ongoing, intense thirst
- Peeing more often
- Difficulty breathing
T1dm In Very Young Children And Infants
Although rare, T1DM can appear very early in life. The signs in very young children and infants are more difficult to recognize because they cant express that theyre thirsty and its often difficult to determine how much they are urinating. Nevertheless, some things can be identified as warning signs, even in infants, including:
- Weight loss
- Visible signs of dehydration, such as reduced tear production, sunken eyes, and dry mouth
These signs can also be caused by other things, like infections. Its essential to have them assessed as soon as possible by a healthcare provider.
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Can A Blood Glucose Meter Help To Diagnose Type 1 Diabetes
A blood glucose meter may be helpful in indicating whether you or a family member may have diabetes.
It is not essential to have a blood glucose meter but it may be considered useful in a family with a history of type 1 diabetes or autoimmune conditions.
A blood glucose result, taken over 2 hours after eating, of over 7.8 mmol/l could indicate a presence of diabetes.
If high results are being recorded 2 hours after eating for consecutive meals, contact your GP who will be able to carry out a diagnosis
It is important that devices used to draw blood from fingers are not shared to prevent the risk of blood borne illnesses.
How Long Does It Take To Develop Type 1 Symptoms
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults tend to develop quickly over a few weeks or few days.
Type 1 diabetes is a dangerous condition if it is left untreated for too long. It is therefore important to seek a diagnosis from your doctor if you or your child is showing the symptoms of type 1 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age. Adults may develop a specific form of type 1 diabetes known as LADA
LADA tends to develop more slowly than type 1 diabetes in children and young adults and people with LADA may sometimes be misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes.
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Is There A Test To Diagnose Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Your doctor or other healthcare provider will order urine and blood tests find out if you have diabetes. There are several different types of blood tests used to diagnose diabetes.
- Fasting blood sugar test: After fasting for 12-hours a glucose level is checked in your blood. If it is high, it is indicative of diabetes.
- Hemoglobin A1C test: This test tells your doctor how your average blood glucose level has been over the past 2-3 months.
- Normal ranges for HbA1c are between 4% and 5.6%.
- HbA1c levels that range from 5.7% to 6.4% indicates increased risk of diabetes.
- HbA1c levels higher than 6.5% indicate diabetes, while higher percentages indicate either worsening diabetic disease or poor response to diabetic treatments.
- Random blood sugar test: This is a test of your blood sugar at the moment your blood is drawn, but this number can vary greatly based on when you last ate.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: This test is rarely used in men, but it measures your bodys response to a large amount of glucose.
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Diabetes: 12 Warning Signs That Appear On Your Skin
Diabetes can affect many parts of your body, including your skin. When diabetes affects the skin, its often a sign that your blood sugar levels are too high. This could mean that:
You have undiagnosed diabetes, or pre-diabetes
Your treatment for diabetes needs to be adjusted
If you notice any of the following warning signs on your skin, its time to talk with your doctor.
Type 1 Diabetes Causes
Insulin is a hormone that helps move sugar, or glucose, into your body’s tissues. Your cells use it as fuel.
Damage to beta cells from type 1 diabetes throws the process off. Glucose doesnât move into your cells because insulin isnât there to do the job. Instead, it builds up in your blood, and your cells starve. This causes highblood sugar, which can lead to:
- Dehydration. When thereâs extra sugar in your blood, you pee more. Thatâs your bodyâs way of getting rid of it. A large amount of water goes out with that urine, causing your body to dry out.
- Weight loss. The glucose that goes out when you pee takes calories with it. Thatâs why many people with high blood sugar lose weight. Dehydration also plays a part.
- Diabetic ketoacidosis . If your body can’t get enough glucose for fuel, it breaks down fat cells instead. This creates chemicals called ketones. Your liver releases the sugar it stores to help out. But your body canât use it without insulin, so it builds up in your blood, along with the acidic ketones. This mix of extra glucose, dehydration, and acid buildup is known as ketoacidosis and can be life-threatening if not treated right away.
- Damage to your body. Over time, high glucose levels in your blood can harm the nerves and small blood vessels in your eyes, kidneys, and heart. They can also make you more likely to get hardened arteries, or atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart attacks and strokes.
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What Causes Type 1 Diabetes
The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is not yet known, but we do know it has a strong family link and cannot be prevented. We also know that it has nothing to do with lifestyle, although maintaining a healthy lifestyle is very important in helping to manage type 1 diabetes.
At this stage nothing can be done to prevent or cure type 1 diabetes.
Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes
You might notice:
- Unplanned weight loss. If your body can’t get energy from your food, it will start burning muscle and fat for energy instead. You may lose weight even though you haven’t changed how you eat.
- Nausea and vomiting. When your body resorts to burning fat, it makes ketones. These can build up in your blood to dangerous levels, a possibly life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketones can make you feel sick to your stomach.
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Lifestyle And Home Remedies
Careful management of type 1 diabetes is important to reduce the risk of acute and long-term serious complications. The following tips will help:
- Wear a tag or bracelet that says you have diabetes, in case of emergency
- Get yearly physical check-ups and regular eye checks to look for diabetes-related complications
- Get annual influenza vaccinations as high blood glucose levels can weaken the immune system
- Wash and moisturise your feet daily and check them for blisters, cuts, and sores
- Control blood pressure and cholesterol levels to help minimise the risk of complications
- Dont smoke. Smoking increases the risk of complications
- Drink alcohol responsibly. Alcohol can cause high or low blood glucose levels
- Minimise stress. Stress hormones may prevent insulin from working properly.
How To Tell If You Or Your Child Has Type 1 Diabetes
With Ilana Halperin MD and Elena Christofides MD
Type 1 diabetes is a permanent condition. That means youll likely have to deal with symptoms at least a few times in your life, no matter how diligently you monitor your blood sugar. Were here to empower you with clear answers to all your pressing Qs.
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How Is Type 1 Diabetes Treated
Treatment means good diabetes control to minimize symptoms prevent health problems and help kids have normal physical, mental, emotional, and social growth and development. To do this, parents and kids should aim to keep blood sugar levels within the goal range as much as possible.
In general, kids with type 1 diabetes need to:
- take insulin as prescribed
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Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes symptoms often take several years to develop. Some people dont notice any symptoms at all. Type 2 diabetes usually starts when youre an adult, though more and more children and teens are developing it. Because symptoms are hard to spot, its important to know the risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Make sure to visit your doctor if you have any of them.
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Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms
Signs are often subtle, but they can become severe. They include:
- Extreme thirst
- Heavy, labored breathing
- Frequent infections of your skin, urinary tract, or vagina
- Crankiness or mood changes
- Bedwetting in a child whoâs been dry at night
Signs of an emergency with type 1 diabetes include:
- Shaking and confusion
Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes Onset In Adults
When an adult is diagnosed with diabetes, they are often mistakenly told that they have type 2 diabetes. This is because there may be a lack of understanding by some doctors that type 1 diabetes can start at any age, and in people of every race, shape and size. People with type 1 diabetes who have elevated blood glucose and classic risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as being overweight or physically inactive, are often misdiagnosed. It can also be tricky because some adults with new-onset type 1 diabetes are not sick at first. Their doctor finds an elevated blood sugar level at a routine visit and starts them on diet, exercise and an oral medication.
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Maybe It’s A Different Type
If you or someone you know is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes but isnt responding well to the typical treatments for type 2 diabetes, it may be worth a visit to an endocrinologist to determine what type of diabetes is happening. Generally, this requires antibody tests and possibly the measurement of a C-peptide level.
Yellow Reddish Or Brown Patches On Your Skin
This skin condition often begins as small raised solid bumps that look like pimples. As it progresses, these bumps turn into patches of swollen and hard skin. The patches can be yellow, reddish, or brown.
You may also notice:
- The surrounding skin has a shiny porcelain-like appearance
- You can see blood vessels
- The skin is itchy and painful
- The skin disease goes through cycles where it is active, inactive, and then active again
- Get tested for diabetes, if you have not been diagnosed.
- Work with your doctor to better control your diabetes.
- See a dermatologist about your skin. Necorbiosis lipodica is harmless, but it can lead to complications.
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What Causes The Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes
All type 1 diabetes symptoms are caused by that lack of insulin. You see, insulin usually acts like a gatekeeper: it takes the glucose that your body converts from carbohydrates in your food and opens your cells so that it can enter them. Once allowed inside, the glucose can then be used by your cells as fuel.
If theres not sufficient insulin to open the gate and let the glucose in, it becomes blocked out of your cells and stays trapped in your bloodstream, causing your blood sugar to rise.
When you first develop type 1 diabetes, there may be some residual insulin remaining in your cells. This is why glucose levels can sometimes hover close enough to normal to go undetected until that initial supply is depleted.
Over time, as the insulin in your body is sapped with no new supply being produced to replace it, symptoms begin to appear and accelerate. When you reach a point where theres no insulin and too much accumulated glucose in your bloodstream, type 1 diabetes symptoms develop rapidly and have to be addressed immediately.
It’s important to note that a little bit of glucose in our blood is normal, says Ilana Halperin MD, a physician and assistant professor of medicine at the University of Toronto. Our blood sugar starts to rise when we consume carbohydrates after a meal, and then as the insulin moves the glucose into our cells, our blood sugar levels dip back down.
Diabetes Type 2 Symptoms
Type 2 diabetes is a condition where your body either does not produces enough insulin or does not use it accordingly. Insulin is normally produced by the pancreas. A person having type 2 diabetes will experience a buildup of glucose in their blood due to its scarcity or misuse while its transfer to the cells. The high amount of glucose in the bloodstream can result in severe health concerns including nerves, eyes, blood vessels, heart, and kidneys. The diabetes type 2 symptoms might not occur for a long term until the situation has turned worse. It mainly arises after your glucose has been for a long time.
Symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes include:
- Yeast infection: Both men and women are at a higher risk of developing a yeast infection. Yeast occurs in the parts where there is plenty of it. Yeast infection will grow in moist and warm folds of skin. These areas of the body including under the breast, between fingers and toes, and in or around the private body parts.
- Slow-healing wounds or cuts: High blood sugar can affect the flow of blood in your body and cause nerve damage over time. It results in making your body incapable of healing wounds fast.
- Feeling of numbness or pain in legs or feet: Due to the nerve damage, your body might cause numbness or pain in the feet or legs.
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