About Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is usually a lifelong condition that causes a persons blood glucose level to become too high.
The hormone insulin produced by the pancreas is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood
There are two main types of diabetes:
- type 1 where the pancreas doesnt produce any insulin
- type 2 where the pancreas doesnt produce enough insulin or the bodys cells dont react to insulin
This topic is about type 2 diabetes.
Read more about type 1 diabetes
Another type of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some pregnant women and tends to disappear after birth.
Can Diabetes Be Prevented Or Cured
“As of now there is no way to prevent or cure type 1 diabetes,” Drincic notes. “There is lots of promising research, but it is still in the early stages.” Some of the initiatives involve targeting the cells in the immune system that cause the autoimmune response. Other possibilities include the use of stem cells or pancreas transplants.
Another area of research is diet and its effects on both prevention and diabetes maintenance. A study published in March 2017 in the British Journal of Nutrition reported that following a diet high in plant nutrients and low in meat consumption lowers a person’s risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The results indicated that certain compounds found in meat, rather than specific proteins, increased the risk of type 2 diabetes. Aside from eating healthy foods rich in plant nutrients, a large number of studies indicate that exercise is paramount not only for weight control, but also for maintaining a healthy, optimistic outlook.
What Is Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes was previously called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus , or adult onset diabetes mellitus . People who have type 2 diabetes can still produce insulin, but do so relatively inadequately for their body’s needs. Type 2 diabetes typically occurs in individuals over 30 years of age, and its incidence increases with advancing age. In contrast, type 1 diabetes is most often diagnosed in young people.
Genetics plays a role in the development of type 2 diabetes, and having a family history and close relatives with the condition increases your risk however, there are other risk factors, with obesity being the most significant. There is a direct relationship between the degree of obesity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes for both children and adults. It has been estimated that the risk of developing type 2 diabetes doubles for every 20% increase over desirable body weight.
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What Problems Can Happen With Type 1 Diabetes
Not having the right amount of sugar in the blood can lead to:
- hyperglycemia: This is when blood sugars are too high. Kids with hyperglycemia may be extra thirsty, pee more than usual, and lose weight. High blood sugars can be treated. If they arent, kids can develop health issues later in life.
- diabetic ketoacidosis : This serious condition needs treatment right away. When theres not enough insulin in the body to let the glucose into the cells, the body starts to break down fat instead of sugar. Symptoms of DKA can include nausea, vomiting, belly pain, fast breathing, and, in severe cases, unconsciousness.
- hypoglycemia: This is when blood sugars are too low and can sometime happen when people are being treated for diabetes. Symptoms can include headache, weakness, shakiness, anxiety, and sweating.
- growth and development problems: Some kids might grow slower than their peers or start puberty later than usual.
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What Risk Factors Of Diabetes Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes
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Managing And Treating Type 1 And Type 2
Managing and treating your diabetes is so important. This is because itll help you avoid serious health complications. And itll play a big part in your daily life regardless of if you have type 1 or type 2.
If you have type 1 diabetes, youll need to take insulin to control your blood sugar levels. Youll also need to test your blood glucose levels regularly. And count how many carbs you eat and drink. Counting carbs will help you work out how much insulin you should take when you inject with your meals.
And generally you should be trying to have a healthy lifestyle. That includes regular physical activity and a healthy balanced diet. These will help you reduce your risk of diabetes complications.
If you have type 2 diabetes, you also need to eat a healthy diet and be active. These things will help you manage your weight and diabetes.
But quite often people with type 2 also need to take medication. Such as tablets and insulin, or other treatments too. Whether you need to test your blood glucose level like someone with type 1, depends on the treatment you take. Your GP can tell you what you should do at home.
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Other Forms Of Diabetes
In 1% to 5% of people who have diabetes, other conditions might be the cause. These include diseases of the pancreas, certain surgeries and medications, and infections. In these cases, your doctor might want to keep an eye on your blood sugar levels.
American Diabetes Association: “Frequently Asked Questions about Pre-Diabetes,” “Type 2 Diabetes,” “The Dangerous Toll of Diabetes,” tion: “Gestational Diabetes,” “About Insulin and Other Drugs.”
National Library of Medicine: “Diabetes.”
National Diabetes Education Project: “About Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes.”
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse : “National Diabetes Statistics, 2011.”
Merck Manual Consumer Version: âDiabetes Mellitus .â
CDC: âAbout Diabetes,â âPrediabetes: Your Chance to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes.â
World Journal of Diabetes: âType 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.â
How Does Diabetes Affect The Body
There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2.
Both types of diabetes are chronic diseases that affect the way your body regulates blood sugar, or glucose. Glucose is the fuel that feeds your bodys cells, but to enter your cells it needs a key. Insulin is that key.
People with type 1 diabetes dont produce insulin. You can think of it as not having a key.
People with type 2 diabetes dont respond to insulin as well as they should and later in the disease often dont make enough insulin. You can think of it as having a broken key.
People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes may also experience irritability, mood changes, and unintentional weight loss.
People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes may also have numbness and tingling in their hands or feet. Good glucose management significantly reduces the risk of developing numbness and tingling in someone with type 1 diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association .
Although many of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are similar, they present in very different ways.
Many people with type 2 diabetes wont have symptoms for many years, and their symptoms often develop slowly over the course of time. Some people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all and dont discover they have the condition until complications arise.
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes may have similar names, but theyre different diseases with unique causes.
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Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes
To diagnose type 1 diabetes youll need to get blood tests done, one of which is called an A1C screening. A1C screenings measure your blood sugar levels from the past two to three months and can be used to diagnose type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Life Line Screening also offers an A1C screening from the privacy of you own home through our home tests. You can learn more here.
How Are Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed
The primary test used to diagnose both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is known as the A1C, or glycated hemoglobin, test.
This blood test determines your average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months. Your doctor may draw your blood or give you a small finger prick.
The higher your blood sugar levels have been over the past few months, the higher your A1C level will be. Test results are expressed as a percentage. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher indicates diabetes.
The A1C test isnt accurate for people with sickle cell anemia or the sickle cell trait. If you have this condition or trait, then your doctor will have to use a different test.
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Type 1 Vs Type 2 Diabetes: Insulin Production
Type 1 diabetes
The ways in which insulin production is impaired differs between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder where antibodies attack the pancreas and destroy its ability to produce insulin, says Romy Block, M.D., endocrinologist and co-founder of Vous Vitamin. Essentially, the body is not able to produce insulin. These patients require insulin as a lifesaving medication.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes, however, has two main parts: 70% is related to a decreased functioning pancreas, and 30% is related to insulin resistance, Dr. Block says. So, the insulin you have doesn’t work as well. In those with type 2 diabetes, the pancreas ability to produce insulin gets less effective over time. Some patients can be controlled with lifestyle changes and pills, while other patients require insulin, he says.
According to Dr. Block, more than 90% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, while around only 10% of those with diabetes have type 1. Read on for the main similarities and differences between the two conditions
When It Becomes An Emergency:
Theres a complication of type 1 diabetes called diabetic ketoacidosis , which results from very high blood sugar and is serious and life-threatening. With DKA, the cells in the body are starved for energy, so they start breaking down fat, producing toxic acids known as ketones. So if you or someone you love experiences these symptoms on top of diabetes symptoms, its time to go to the ER:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Tingling or numbness of the lips, tongue or cheek
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Medicines For Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition and usually gets worse over time. Making lifestyle changes, such as adjusting your diet and taking more exercise, may help you control your blood glucose levels at first, but may not be enough in the long term.
You may eventually need to take medication to help control your blood glucose levels.
Initially, this will usually be in the form of tablets and can sometimes be a combination of more than one type of tablet. It may also include insulin or another medication that you inject.
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What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes can come on over time or suddenly. Sometimes, kids dont have diabetes symptoms yet and the condition is discovered when blood or urine tests are done for another reason. Kids who show symptoms may:
- need to pee a lot
- start to wet the bed after having been dry at night
- be thirstier and drink more than usual
- feel tired often
- lose weight
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Type 2 Diabetes Complications
With type 2 diabetes , if you dont work hard to keep your blood glucose level under control, there are short- and long-term complications to contend with. However, by watching the amount and types of food you eat , exercising, and taking any necessary medications, you may be able to prevent these complications. And even if you have some of the long-term, more serious complications discussed below when youre first diagnosed, getting tight control of your blood glucose will help prevent the complications from becoming worse. Short-term Diabetes Complications Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose . It is possible for your blood glucose to drop, especially if youre taking insulin or a sulfonylurea drug . With these medications, if you eat less than usual or were more active, your blood glucose may dip too much. Other possible causes of hypoglycemia include certain medications and too much alcohol . Rapid heartbeat Sweating Whiteness of skin Anxiety Numbness in fingers, toes, and lips Sleepiness Confusion Headache Slurred speech Mild cases of hypoglycemia can be treated by drinking orange juice or eating a glucose tabletthose will quickly raiContinue reading > >
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Symptoms Of Type 1 And Type 2
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share common symptoms. They are:
- going to the toilet a lot, especially at night
- being really thirsty
- feeling more tired than usual
- losing weight without trying to
- genital itching or thrush
- cuts and wounds take longer to heal
- blurred vision.
But where type 1 and type 2 diabetes are different in symptom is how they appear. Type 1 can often appear quite quickly. That makes them harder to ignore. This is important because symptoms that are ignored can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis .
But type 2 diabetes can be easier to miss. This is because it develops more slowly, especially in the early stages. That makes it harder to spot the symptoms. That is why it is important to know your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Some people have diabetes and dont know it. They can have it for up to 10 years without knowing.
Causes Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatments
Never mind the second-place namemore than 90 percent of people with diabetes have Type 2. And a substantial number dont even know they have it. So, what are its giveaway symptoms? How do you avoid complications? Will the right diet help you reverse it? Were here to empower you with clear answers to all your pressing Qs.
In This Article:
Elena Christofides MD, Caroline Apovian MD, and Sharon Bergquist MD
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What Is The Life Expectancy Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
The life expectancy of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes depends on a number of factors such as the individual, the length of the disease, lifestyle measures adopted, medications and drugs were taken, complications which diabetes might lead to, amongst others.
On an average, patients who have type 1 diabetes have reduced life span by as much as 20 years, while those suffering from type 1 have their average life reduced by around 10 years. Also, results of one of the studies conducted by the University of Pittsburgh suggest that those born after 1965 and having type 1 diabetes have a life expectancy of around 69 years.
Here, you need to remember that the above figures are just an average of those who suffer from diabetes. These estimates might include those who might not have taken care of the disease and might not have taken any type of medical assistance as well. Today, there are a lot of treatments available that can go a long way in prolonging the life span of diabetes patients.
Mody Maturity Onset Diabetes Of The Young
MODY is a rare form of diabetes that is caused by a change in a single gene. This makes MODY a type of monogenic diabetes.
Because half of our genes come from each parent, there is a 1 in 2 chance of inheriting MODY from an affected parent, and it runs strongly in families. However, sometimes the genetic change can develop on its own, without being inherited from a parent.
The most common genes that cause MODY are HNF1A, HNF4A, HNF1B and glucokinase, and the condition behaves differently depending on which gene is affected.
A genetic test can be used to confirm MODY and work out which gene is affected. It is important to know which gene is causing MODY, as treatment varies accordingly. Some forms of MODY may require insulin injections, while others are treated using drugs to boost insulin production in the pancreas. One form of MODY requires no treatment at all.
MODY is typically diagnosed under the age of 25, often with a family history of diabetes.
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