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What Is Type 1 Diabetes Caused By

What Are The Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes

What Causes Type 1 Diabetes?

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are serious and usually happen quickly, over a few days to weeks. Symptoms can include

  • increased thirst and urination
  • trouble breathing
  • trouble paying attention or feeling confused

DKA is serious and dangerous. If you or your child have symptoms of DKA, contact your health care professional right away, or go to the nearest hospital emergency room.

What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes

A person can have diabetes without knowing it because the symptoms aren’t always obvious and they can take a long time to develop. Type 1 diabetes may come on gradually or suddenly.

But kids or teens who develop type 1 diabetes may:

  • Need to pee a lot. The kidneys respond to high levels of glucose in the blood by flushing out the extra glucose in urine . Kids with high blood sugar levels need to pee more often and make more pee.
  • Drink a lot of liquids. Because they’re peeing so often and losing so much fluid, they can become very thirsty and drink a lot in an attempt to keep the levels of body water normal.
  • Feel tired often. This is because the body can’t use glucose for energy properly.
  • Lose weight . Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes may have an increased appetite, but often lose weight because the body breaks down muscle and stored fat in an attempt to provide fuel to the hungry cells.

In some cases, other symptoms can be the signal that something is wrong. Sometimes the first sign of diabetes is bedwetting in a child who has been dry at night. Diabetes also should be suspected if a girl who hasn’t started puberty yet gets a vaginal yeast infection.

What Is Sugar In Urine

Sugar is usually present in the urine at very low levels or not at all. Abnormally high amounts of sugar in the urine, known as glycosuria, are usually the result of high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar usually occurs in diabetes, especially when untreated.

Normally, when blood is filtered in the kidneys, some sugar remains in the fluid that will later become urine. If the level of blood sugar is low, as is normally the case, the body can reabsorb the sugar from this fluid before it leaves the kidney to be excreted as urine. When the blood sugar is high, there is too much sugar in the fluid leaving the kidney to be reabsorbed, so some sugar passes into the urine.

Sugar in the urine can be detected in the laboratory or is easy to detect at home with a urine dipstick test. Because sugar in the urine is associated with high blood sugar and , it is important to consult a physician if you suspect you have sugar in your urine. Sugar in the urine is often accompanied by other symptoms of diabetes, including , unexplained weight loss, excessive or hunger, and frequent urination.

Seek immediate medical care if you have sugar in the urine along with more serious symptoms, including the inability to think clearly.

Seek prompt medical care if your sugar in the urine is persistent or causes you concern.

Read Also: How Do You Treat Type 2 Diabetes

If Your Urine Smells Like Ammonia

You may be dehydrated.

Urine is mostly made up of water, with the addition of waste products like urea. If you have foul-smelling or pungent urine that has a strong ammonia scent, then its likely youre dehydrated, leading to more concentrated urine.

Where doctors worry is when you have additional symptoms. For instance, an ammonia smell to your urine along with burning, pain with urination and fever may point to a urinary tract infection , Dr. Agarwal says.

Fix it: Drinking more water will dilute your urine, which will tame the smell. Youll know youre properly hydrated if your pee is somewhere between clear and a light yellow color, per the Cleveland Clinic.

If you have additional symptoms, make an appointment with your doctor.

What Normal Urine Looks Like

Causes of Type 1 Diabetes

Normal urine is clear with a slight tint of yellow, often referred to as straw-colored. How much yellow color is present fluctuates with the amount of water in the body. A person who is well hydrated and drinks six to eight glasses of water per day typically has light-yellow urine. A person who drinks less water than they should may have a darker yellow urine. As the body holds water, urine becomes more yellow or concentrated.

A normal individual may use the bathroom six or more times a day, depending on how much water they drink during the course of the day. More water intake usually means more trips to the bathroom.

There are many reasons the color of the urine may change, or the odor associated with urination may be different than what is typical. Many causes of a change in urine color are common and not indicative of anything serious, although it can be shocking to see strangely colored urine if you do not expect it.

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Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms

Signs are often subtle, but they can become severe. They include:

  • Extreme thirst
  • Heavy, labored breathing
  • Frequent infections of your skin, urinary tract, or vagina
  • Crankiness or mood changes
  • Bedwetting in a child whoâs been dry at night

Signs of an emergency with type 1 diabetes include:

  • Shaking and confusion


End The Myths & Misinformation

Despite popular belief, diabetes is not caused by eating too much sugar and people dont give themselves diabetes. Popular media often depicts disease and people with diabetes in an inaccurate and harmful light.

There are several different reasons why someone may develop diabetes. The cause of diabetes depends on your genes, family history, ethnic background, and other factors such as the environment and your health. It also depends on the type of diabetes you have.

There is no common cause that fits every type of diabetes. The reason why someone will develop type 1 diabetes is very different from the reasons why another person will develop type 2 diabetes.

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What Kind Of Doctor Treats Diabetes

Endocrinology is the specialty of medicine that deals with hormone disturbances, and both endocrinologists and pediatric endocrinologists manage patients with diabetes. People with diabetes may also be treated by family medicine or internal medicine specialists. When complications arise, people with diabetes may be treated by other specialists, including neurologists, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, surgeons, cardiologists, or others.

What Will Happen If My Kidneys Have Been Damaged

What is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus ? | Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, Prevention | Type 1 diabetes |CVR

First, the doctor needs to find out if your diabetes has caused the injury. Other diseases can cause kidney damage. Your kidneys will work better and last longer if you:

  • Control your diabetes
  • Get treatment for urinary tract infections
  • Correct any problems in your urinary system
  • Avoid any medicines that may damage the kidneys

If no other problems are found, your doctor will try to keep your kidneys working as long as possible. The use of high blood pressure medicines called angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors has been shown to help slow the loss of kidney function.

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Type 1 Diabetes Treatment: Artificial Pancreas

Researchers are developing an artificial pancreas. This device is a combination of an insulin pump and continuous glucose monitoring system controlled by a computer program. The goal for the system is to have a device that mimics the function of a normal pancreas.

Additional Information on Diabetes

  • James M. Bell/Photo Researchers Inc
  • Medical RF.com
  • Whats The Difference Between Ketosis And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Its important to seek immediate medical attention for DKA, and it may involve a hospital trip. A blood or urine test for ketones can detect DKA. Treatment involves insulin injections and fluid replacement.

    Frequently, a bout of DKA is what leads to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, particularly in young people. Dr. Dutta says this can happen to anyone with type 1 diabetes at any age, but if a person develops the disease in their middle or later years, the progression is typically more gradual and they are therefore more likely to already be under a doctors care for high blood sugar.

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    Symptoms And Risk Factors

    It can take months or years for enough beta cells to be destroyed before symptoms of type 1 diabetes are noticed. Type 1 diabetes symptoms can develop in just a few weeks or months. Once symptoms appear, they can be severe.

    Some type 1 diabetes symptoms are similar to symptoms of other health conditions. Dont guessif you think you could have type 1 diabetes, see your doctor right away to get your blood sugar tested. Untreated diabetes can lead to very seriouseven fatalhealth problems.

    Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are not as clear as for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, though family history is known to play a part.

    How Often Do I Need To See My Primary Diabetes Healthcare Professional

    The causes of diabetes type 1 infographics Vector Image

    In general, if you are being treated with insulin shots, you should see your doctor at least every three to four months. If you are treated with pills or are managing diabetes through diet, you should be seen at least every four to six months. More frequent visits may be needed if your blood sugar is not controlled or if complications of diabetes are worsening.

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    Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments And Support

    With Ilana Halperin MD and Elena Christofides MD

    Learning you or your child has type 1 diabetes means taking an active role in health 24/7. Luckily, there are more low-key ways to track blood sugar and administer insulin than ever. From glucose monitoring to meal planning, were here to empower you with clear answers to all your pressing questions. 

     | Frequently Asked Questions | Support 

    Can Diabetes Cause Hair Loss

    Yes, its possible for diabetes to cause hair loss. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to persistently high blood glucose levels. This, in turn, leads to blood vessel damage and restricted flow, and oxygen and nutrients cant get to the cells that need it including hair follicles. Stress can cause hormone level changes that affect hair growth. If you have Type 1 diabetes, your immune system attacks itself and can also cause a hair loss condition called alopecia areata.

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    Prevention Of Type 1 Diabetes

    Doctors arent aware of a way to prevent type 1 diabetes, but researchers are exploring ways to do so or at least slow its progression, says the NIDDK.

    For instance, the monoclonal antibody drug teplizumab is in phase 3 clinical trials after an article published in August 2019 in the New England Journal of Medicine found it delayed the onset of type 1 diabetes by an average of two years in people who had relatives with the disease.

    Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes

    What Is Type 1 Diabetes? | 2 Minute Guide | Diabetes UK
    • taking insulin daily by injections or by insulin pump
    • self-monitoring of blood sugar levels by regularly testing droplets of blood in a glucose meter
    • self-testing of urine with a test strip for high levels of ketones not routinely, but when problems are suspected
    • regulating diet so intake is matched to insulin and exercise
    • increasing the amount of slow carbohydrates in the diet, such as beans and fruit, which take longer to be absorbed by the body
    • regular exercise
    • maintaining regular checks for diabetes complications.

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    What Do The Results Mean

    Glucose is not normally found in urine. If results show glucose, it may be a sign of:

    • Diabetes
    • Pregnancy. As many half of all pregnant women have some glucose in their urine during pregnancy. Too much glucose may indicate gestational diabetes.

    Learn more about laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results.

    Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes

    The symptoms of type 1 diabetes typically begin quite suddenly, unlike type 2, which often show symptoms gradually.

    People with type 1 diabetes may experience the following symptoms:

    Type 1 diabetes is a serious condition that may have serious complications. Symptoms of an emergency with type 1 diabetes include:

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    Whats The Difference Between Signs Vs Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes

    Type 1 diabetes symptoms are experienced by a person with diabetes, but signs of type 1 diabetes can also be noted by friends and family even if the person who is having the symptoms may not notice them or may be unable to communicate because they are in the throes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Common signs of T1D to watch out for include:

    • Weight loss, despite eating more
    • Changes to menstruation
    • Low body temperature
    • Acting or seeming drunk while sober, which is a sign of diabetic ketoacidosis
    • Breath that is fruity or smells like nail polish remover which is another sign of ketosis
    • Chronic skin infections

    How Are Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Treated

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

    Theres no cure for type 1 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes dont produce insulin, so it must be regularly injected into the body.

    Some people take injections into soft tissue, such as the stomach, arm, or buttocks, several times per day. Other people use insulin pumps. Insulin pumps supply a steady amount of insulin into the body through a small tube.

    Blood sugar testing is an essential part of managing type 1 diabetes, because levels can go up and down quickly.

    Type 2 diabetes can be managed and even reversed with diet and exercise alone, but many people need extra support. If lifestyle changes arent enough, your doctor may prescribe medications that help your body use insulin more effectively.

    Monitoring your blood sugar is an essential part of type 2 diabetes management too. Its the only way to know if youre meeting your target levels.

    Your doctor may recommend testing your blood sugar occasionally or more frequently. If your blood sugar levels are high, your doctor may recommend insulin injections.

    Read Also: What Happens If Insulin Is Taken After Food

    What Happens To The Pancreas

    In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach, stops making insulin because the cells that make the insulin have been destroyed by the bodys immune system. Without insulin, the bodys cells cannot turn glucose , into energy.

    People with type 1 diabetes depend on insulin every day of their lives to replace the insulin the body cannot produce. They must test their blood glucose levels several times throughout the day.

    The onset of type 1 diabetes occurs most frequently in people under 30 years, however new research suggests almost half of all people who develop the condition are diagnosed over the age of 30. About 10-15 per cent of all cases of diabetes are type 1.

    What Are The Risk Factors For Diabetes

    Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are not as well understood as those for type 2 diabetes. Family history is a known risk factor for type 1 diabetes. Other risk factors can include having certain infections or diseases of the pancreas.

    Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are many. The following can raise your risk of developing type 2 diabetes:

    • Being obese or overweight
    • Ethnic background: Hispanic/Latino Americans, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Alaska natives are at greater risk.

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    Favorite Orgs For Essential Diabetes Info


    This nonprofit is among the most prominent in the United States focused specifically on type 1 diabetes research and advocacy. Its offerings are vast, with chapters nationwide, and they include a wealth of resources in English and Spanish to help you navigate life with the disease. You can also get matched with outreach volunteers who have a close personal connection to type 1 diabetes, and they can help you cope. They can also help you learn how to use their clinical trials matching tool. And because insulin therapy can be so expensive, they also provide a guide to navigating health insurance, and information on other ways to afford your medication.

    American Diabetes Association

    The largest organization in the United States focusing on all types of diabetes, it is a treasure trove of information about the disease, in part because of its prominent role in the research world through a professional society that hosts yearly conferences; its highly respected, peer-reviewed journals; and a key role setting standards of diabetes care in the United States. They advocate for legislation to make insulin more affordable, and host InsulinHelp.org, a guide to information about drug manufacturers patient assistance programs.

    What Does Your Pee Say About Your Health

    Type 1 Diabetes – Getting to the Root Cause

    Its such a common thing you may not think much about it. But every time you pee, your body is doing some pretty amazing things. Do you know why you pee? And do you know what your urine is made of?

    Why We Pee

    At the microscopic level, your body is constantly working to keep you healthy, even while you sleep. Complex chemical processes take place throughout the body, including the breakdown of proteins known as amino acids. When your body breaks down amino acids, ammonia is left over as waste. Thats not something you want in your body for longammonia is toxic to human cells.

    Since ammonia is toxic to your body, you need a way to remove it. That happens partly in the liver, where the ammonia is broken down into the less-toxic chemical, urea. Urea then combines with water and gets flushed into your bladder through the kidneys as urine, protecting your body from its own chemical processes.

    What Is Urine Made of?

    In the simplest terms, urine is about 95% water and 5% urea and other solids. But urine is much more complex than this simple formula suggests. Urine contains five to 10 times the number of chemical compounds found in other common body fluids like salivamore than 3,000 different chemical compounds in total. Your pee contains the remnants of the various foods you eat, as well as drug byproducts, bacterial waste, cosmetics, and chemicals found in your environment.

    Why Study Urine?

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    How Is Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed

    Because the symptoms can develop rapidly, a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is usually made by a pediatrician or a physician in the emergency room. Pediatricians might check a childs glucose levels if there is unexplained weight loss or sudden bedwetting. Glucose tests are also commonly run when a person with type 1 diabetes symptoms arrives at the hospital.

    Doctors can also diagnose type 1 diabetes by running several tests to check blood-sugar levels. The primary screening test for type 1 diabetes is the random blood-sugar test, which tells physicians the amount of glucose circulating in a persons blood at a specific moment in time. A blood-sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter suggests diabetes.

    The secondary test is a glycated hemoglobin test, or A1C test. This test measures the average amount of glucose in a persons bloodstream over the past 90 days as a percentage.

    A normal A1C level is between 5 and 5.5%, while anything higher than 5.7% indicates diabetes. When diabetes is controlled, a persons A1C levels will be low.

    Its a useful test because you dont want to overreact, says Dr. Christofides. If someone has hyperglycemia for a week or a couple days, their A1C isnt going to rise. This gives us a good reflection of what the glucose level was for the past three months.

    Additional Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes In Babies And Toddlers

    • Weight loss
    • Failure to thrive, a condition involving weight loss or inability to gain weight combined with stunted growth
    • Colic or fussiness that just wont let up
    • Poor-quality sleep that doesnt improve no matter what you try
    • Bedwetting, especially after successful potty-training

    All of these symptoms are a result of hyperglycemiatoo much glucose circulating in our bloodstream, also known as high blood sugar. Any person experiencing hyperglycemia, particularly after a viral illness, should seek immediate medical help.

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    Molecular Mimicry Might Enhance But Not Initiate Autoimmunity

    The rat insulin promoter lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus system is a mouse model in which diabetes is initiated by viral infection . In this model, RIP-LCMV mice transgenically express the glycoprotein or nucleoprotein of LCMV as a target antigen in their islets under the control of the RIP. Infection of these mice with LCMV breaks peripheral responsiveness to glycoprotein/nucleoprotein, leading to attack of -cells by T-cells and eventual development of type 1 diabetes. Importantly, this model suggests that viral infection is able to induce autoimmunity only if homology between viral and -cell antigens is 100%, since a single amino acid change flanking a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope was found to interfere with the development of type 1 diabetes . These data further support the hypothesis that molecular mimicry alone might not be capable of inducing type 1 diabetes but rather be an essential precipitator once autoimmunity has been initiated. Indeed, we previously reported that an LCMV mimic ligand can accelerate preexisting autoimmunity by inducing autoreactive T-cells to proliferate and localize in the islets, yet does not generate sufficient autoreactive T-cells to initiate disease in naive mice . We propose that viral infections alone will not initiate autoimmunity but rather act to provide a fertile field for further expansion of activated autoreactive T-cells, leading to autoimmune disease .

    When Cgm Service Fails: 5 Tips For A Creating A Backup Plan

    Diabetes mellitus type 1

    When an insulin pump and CGM are integrated, the CGM can deliver information to the pump about the patients current blood sugar level and the trend of the blood sugar. This allows the pump to potentially alter insulin delivery to help maintain blood sugars more within a healthy range, says Thomas. While the patient still needs to be very involved with his or her own diabetes management, these devices offer a helping hand.

    Read Also: Does Smoking Affect Blood Sugar Test

    Type 1 Diabetes And Diet

    People with type 1 diabetes, like everyone else, need to eat a well-balanced diet. This will help their insulin therapy and reduce the chance of diabetic complications. There is no “diabetes diet.” Even a person with type 1 diabetes can eat sweets as long as it is part of a well-balanced diet. That is not to say they can eat anything all the time, but they need to consider how sweets can fit into their well-balanced diet. Type 1 diabetics should also consider the fact that carbohydrates raise blood sugar levels faster than any other food. Food low in carbs, but high in calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and other vitamins are excellent food choices for diabetics. Consider the following guidelines when planning your meals:

    • Eat less unhealthy fat
    • Keep track of carbohydrate consumption
    • Keep track of carbohydrates in sugar-free foods

    Healthcare workers such as dietitians can help people with diabetes plan a well-balanced and varied diet.

    What Does It Mean If Your Urine Looks Like Lemonade

    If it is the color of apple juice, you are dehydrated and need to drink more. If it is the color of pale lemonade or clear, you are well hydrated. This is a spectrum of colors. If your urine is on the dark end of the spectrum not necessarily apple juice dark, but a darker color you need to drink more.

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