How Type 1 Is Different From Type 2
Although type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes may seem similar, they are .
- With type 1 diabetes, the body cant produce insulin properly due to the destruction of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This condition is an autoimmune disorder caused primarily by genetic factors.
- With type 2 diabetes, the body cant use insulin properly and, in some cases, may not be able to produce enough insulin either. This condition is caused by lifestyle factors and genetics.
While type 1 diabetes is the condition that has the strongest genetic risk factors, there are also certain genetic risk factors for type 2 diabetes as well, including family history, age, and race.
Signs Of Type 1 Diabetes In Kids
Of course, as a parent, you hope your child does not develop type 1 diabetes. However, it is important for you to be aware of the symptoms of the disease in children, so that you can recognize them early and get your child tested.
- Frequent urination and thirst: Having high blood sugar eliminates fluids from the body, which will lead to increased thirst and the need to take more bathroom breaks throughout the day.
- Fatigue: If your child is constantly tired, it may be a sign that their body is having trouble turning sugar in the bloodstream into energy.
- Changes in vision: High blood sugar levels can lead to blurred vision or other eyesight problems.
- Fruity smelling breath: If your childs breath smells fruity, it could be a result of excess sugar in the blood.
- Extreme hunger and unexplained weight loss: When your childs muscles and organs arent receiving enough energy, it can trigger extreme hunger. And sudden weight lossespecially if they are eating moreshould not be ignored.
- Unusual behavior: If your child seems more moody or restless than normaland its in conjunction with the symptoms aboveit could be cause for concern.
The signs of type 1 diabetes may differ slightly for kids of different ages. If you have a toddler or teen, learn more about the symptoms they might experience.
Genetics And Lifestyle Play A Role
Joness concern is well founded. Research suggests that having a parent with type 2 diabetes increases your risk of developing the disease by as much as fourfold, and even more if both parents are affected. We know that if both parents have type 2 diabetes, theres about a 50 percent risk that you and your siblings could have the genes passed on, says Edward Hess, MD, an endocrinologist who leads the diabetes program at Kaiser Permanente in Fontana, California.
Its clear that theres a strong genetic component to type 2 diabetes, and thats why we see greater prevalence in some ethnic groups, like Native Americans and African Americans. But its an incredibly complex disease. There are literally dozens of genes and sites on the DNA that are associated with type 2 diabetes, Dr. Hess says.
Its hard to tease out how much of our risk comes from genetics and how much comes from lifestyle factors, like eating and exercise patterns. It’s a combination of inheriting that really strong type of diabetes from your parents, says Hess, and you can inherit bad habits from your parents, too.
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Is Diabetes Hereditary From Mother Or Father
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Genetic Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is the most frequent kind, accounting for 9095 percent of all diabetes cases that take place due to genes. People with type 2 diabetes, like those with type 1, probably have a close diabetic family member.
If you have type 2 diabetes, youre probably not the first person in your family to develop the disease. If a parent or sibling has the disease, youre more likely to have it. The development of type 2 diabetes is linked with several genetic factors. These gene variants can interact with each other and the environment to raise your risk.
In general, mutations in any gene involved in glucose regulation can raise your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. These genes include the regulation of
- the process of glucose production
- the production and control of insulin, and
- how the body detects glucose levels.
Type 2 includes some symptoms that develop or show diabetes genetics as:
- Urination ,
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Is Type 1 Diabetes Hereditary In Families
The gene variations responsible for type 1 diabetes are passed down in families. “The lifetime risk of developing T1DM is significantly increased if one has a family history of type 1 diabetes,” says Dr. Adimoolam. “One study suggests that the risk of developing T1DM with no family history is 0.4%. If there is one parent with T1DM, the risk off their child developing T1DM increases to 3%-4%.”
If your mother or father has type 1 diabetes, your risk of getting it is about 5%, versus only 1% in the general population, says Dr. Olansky.
More On Inheriting Type 1 Diabetes Through Genes
Autoimmune antibodies can be found in the blood of people with type 1 diabetes for years before symptoms appear.
Its possible that the problem could worsen over time, or something would have to trigger the autoimmune antibodies before symptoms arise. Symptoms usually occur shortly after this triggering, within days or weeks. Moreover, some of the causes that may complicate type 1 diabetes are:
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Is Type 2 Diabetes Hereditary
Lets be honest, living with Type 2 diabetes means enduring some unfortunate stereotypes. People assume youre lazy, overweight or obese, hate exercise, and dont know how to eat a healthy diet. If you bring up your family having a history of diabetes, especially Type 2, people assume youre making excuses for your lifestyle choices. You know theyre wrong, but why? Whats the connection between Type 2 diabetes and genetics and is it hereditary?
Can I Get Diabetes Even If No One In The Family Has It
Dr. Alan Shuldiner answers the question: ‘Diabetes Risk Without Family History?’
— Question: Can I get diabetes even if no one in the family has it?
Answer: Even if no one in the family has diabetes, you can still get it. Genes don’t determine for sure, whether you’ll get diabetes or not they only influence the likelihood or the susceptibility to the disease. If both of your parents have the genes that increase the risk of diabetes, you’ll be at a higher risk, even if your parents or family members do not actually have the disease.
In addition to genes you inherit, environmental factors play an important role, such as an unhealthy diet, or low levels of physical activity this will increase your risk for obesity or type 2 diabetes. So, if family members eat a healthy diet and exercise, they may not have diabetes, but if you follow an unhealthy lifestyle, you might develop it.
For type 1 diabetes, the environmental risk factors are a little bit less certain, but there’s some data that suggest that exposure to certain viruses or possibly even toxins in the environment that may contribute to the risk of the disease. So, if none of your family members have been exposed to the environmental risk factors, none of them will develop diabetes, but if you are exposed, you may develop diabetes.
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Will I Pass On Type 1 Diabetes To My Baby
It is natural for people with type 1 diabetes to worry about the possibility of passing the disease on to their children. Reassuringly, the disease does not develop in a majority of people with genetic risk factors. But that said, your child will still have a greater risk of developing type 1 than the general populationon average, this risk is about fifteen times greater for someone with a relative who has the disease. Besides having a parent with the disease, your childs risk of inheriting type 1 can be impacted by additional factors like:
- Where you live
- How old you were when you developed type 1 diabetes
- The presence of diabetes-related autoantibodies in your body
- Whether one or both parents have the disease
- Your age when the baby is born
- Having certain immune system disorders in addition to type 1
It is important to remember that ones genetic makeup is not the only factor at play. In fact, 80 percent of people with type 1 diabetes have no family history of the disease. Researchers are still trying to understand exactly how genes and environmental factors interact to determine a persons risk of developing type 1 diabetesfor example, certain viruses that target beta cells, causing the bodys autoimmune response to go awry and attack healthy cells. According to ADA, early diet may also play a role in the development of the disease it is less common in people who were breastfed and in those who began eating solid food at later ages.
Is Diabetes Hereditary
3/10/2020 by Ilka Gdanietz
One sentence that was burned into my brain when I was diagnosed in the 90s was that I would “very likely” later pass my type 1 diabetes on to my children. At that time I accepted that and at the age of 10 years I didnt think much more about it. But how likely is it really to inherit type 1 diabetes?
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What Leads To Diabetes
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different causes, but there are two factors that are important in both. You inherit a predisposition to the disease, then something in your environment triggers it.
Thats right: genes alone are not enough. One proof of this is identical twins. Identical twins have identical genes. Yet when one twin has type 1 diabetes, the other gets the disease, at most, only half the time. When one twin has type 2 diabetes, the other’s risk is three in four at most.
Can Eating Too Much Sugar Cause Type 2 Diabetes
Cardiovascular health conditions, such as having high blood pressure, a low level of HDL cholesterol, a high level of triglycerides in your blood or a history of heart disease or stroke, are also associated with type 2 diabetes. So is having depression or polycystic ovary syndrome.
The influence of family history on whether you will develop diabetes is better established with type 2 than it is with type 1, says Alvarado. If you look at people who have type 2 diabetes, they are more likely to have people in their family that also have diabetes, or have obesity, or other risk factors. But she cautions that its hard to know if that influence is due to genes alone or a shared environment and lifestyle. It could also be that what they are sharing is not a genetic variation. Maybe they are sharing their diet or a lack of access to opportunities for exercise, depending on where they live, says Alvarado.
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New Genetic Discoveries May Hold Clues To Predict Prevent Type 1 Diabetes
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The etiology of type 1 diabetes continues to be debated, although experts agree it is likely a mix of genetic and environmental causes. Today, more than 50 regions of the human genome are implicated in type 1 diabetes.
Within each region, researchers are identifying new genes, biological pathways and potential therapeutic targets for intervention, but a cure or a way to prevent progression to type 1 diabetes remains elusive.
At the same time, cases of type 1 diabetes are surging in the U.S. According to the CDCs National Diabetes Statistics Report released in February, the number of people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes rose by nearly 30% since 2017, with the greatest increases observed among minority children.
The big mystery in type 1 diabetes is, why does it happen?Louis H. Philipson, MD, PhD, FACP, professor of medicine, director of the Kovler Diabetes Center at the University of Chicago School of Medicine, and former president of medicine and science for the American Diabetes Association, told Endocrine Today. Is there an environmental cause or a genetic cause? Autoimmune diseases, as a group, tend to be not all that inheritable. That is sometimes a surprise to people.
Family diabetes history
Type 1 diabetes in twins can also develop at different times, Philipson said.
Clues from monogenic diabetes
Is There A Diabetes Gene
Scientists have not identified one gene which causes type 1 diabetes. Instead, they’ve discovered mutations in a tribe of genes called the human leukocyte antigen complex. Specific combinations of these mutations seem to confer a higher risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
“These mutations are associated with changes in one’s immune system which stimulates an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas leading to type 1 diabetes,” Deena Adimoolam, MD, a specialist in endocrinology and preventative medicine in New Jersey tells Health.
Specifically, these genes, which are located on chromosome 6, help the immune system identify which compounds are natural to the body and which shouldn’t be there. Without this ability, the immune system has no way to tell which compounds are friend and which are foe.
This same gene complex is also involved in other autoimmune diseases, which may explain another feature of type 1 diabetes.
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“Patients with type 1 diabetes can have other autoimmune diseases,” says Dr. Olansky. “They probably have a similar pathway.”
But the changes in HLA genes only explain about 40% of the genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. There are other genes that can not only increase the risk but also lower the risk. “There are a lot of other genes that modify that risk and make it greater or lesser,” says Dr. Olansky.
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Type 2 Diabetes And Genetics Average Risks
- If either mother of father has diabetes increases risk of diabetes by 15%
- If both mother and father have diabetes increases risk by 75%
- If non-identical twin has diabetes increases risk by 10%
- If identical twin has diabetes increases risk by 90%
Some other forms of diabetes may be directly inherited, including maturity onset diabetes in the young and diabetes due to mitochondrial DNA mutation.
However, neither type 1 or type 2 diabetes may be entirely genetically determined.
Experts believe that environmental factors act as either initators or accelerators.
Several genes are known as susceptibility genes, meaning that if an individual is carrying this gene they face greater risk of developing diabetes.
Similarly, other genes provide greater immune tolerance for non-diabetics.
What Is The Probability Of Inheriting Type 1 Diabetes
“Most likely,” what does that mean anyway? What is the probability that people with type 1 diabetes will pass on the diabetes to their children?
First of all, the wording is actually wrong, because it is not the diabetes that is inherited, only the genetic disposition, i.e. the predisposition to possibly develop diabetes, can be inherited.
Whether it actually happens is another story. So many possible causes that lead to a type 1 diabetes diagnosis are suspected, for example environmental influences such as food or viral infections.
Its also interesting to note that about 90% of all people with type 1 diabetes have no family history of type 1 diabetes at all. Me neither. But when you start thinking about family planning, the heredity of diabetes becomes more important.
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Family Health History And Diabetes
If you have a mother, father, sister, or brother with diabetes, you are more likely to get diabetes yourself. You are also more likely to have prediabetes. Talk to your doctor about your family health history of diabetes. Your doctor can help you take steps to prevent or delay diabetes, and reverse prediabetes if you have it.
Over 34 million people have diabetes. People with diabetes have levels of blood sugar that are too high. The different types of diabetes include type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Diabetes can cause serious health problems, including heart disease, kidney problems, stroke, blindness, and the need for lower leg amputations.
People with prediabetes have levels of blood sugar that are higher than normal, but not high enough for them to be diagnosed with diabetes. People with prediabetes are more likely to get type 2 diabetes. About 88 million people in the United States have prediabetes, but most of them dont know they have it. If you have prediabetes, you can take steps to reverse it and prevent or delay diabetesbut not if you dont know that you have it. Could you have prediabetes? Take this testexternal icon to find out.
Even if you have a family health history of diabetes, you can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes by eating healthier, being physically active, and maintaining or reaching a healthy weight. This is especially important if you have prediabetes, and taking these steps can reverse prediabetes.