Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes come on much more quickly and severely because the development of the disease usually happens within a matter of weeks once the immune system has begun attacking the cells that produce insulin.
As insulin production quickly decreases, blood sugar levels quickly increase.
Left unnoticed or untreated, the dangerously high blood sugar levels within even one month of having the disease can become fatal or nearly fatal, putting undiagnosed patients in comas.
Fortunately, most cases of type 1 diabetes are caught before this happens due to its very consistent symptoms.
The most common symptoms of type 1 diabetes include:
- Sudden extreme thirst
- Tingling pain or numbness in feet and hands
Type 2 Diabetes Is A Metabolic Disorder
Contrary to what mainstream media often says, type 2 diabetes is not caused by eating too much sugar, or even by being overweight or obese either. Instead, the actual cause of type 2 diabetes is still a bit unknown.
While its clear that nutrition and bodyweight play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes and contribute significantly to insulin resistance, that still doesnt address the cause of the condition.
What is clear, however, is that it is a dysfunction within the bodys ability to produce enough insulin, and the bodys ability to fully make use of the insulin produced.
Like type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes produce inadequate amounts of amylin another critical hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels and appetite after eating.
A large percentage of patients with type 2 diabetes, explains Gretchen Becker, author of The First Year: Type 2 Diabetes, actually struggle to produce normal amounts of insulin, and this may start long before any other typical symptoms of diabetes or weight gain
Becker adds that the diabetes-related genes passed on through family members actually concern insulin production, not a disposition for insulin resistance.
Once considered a condition that only occurs with old age, type 2 diabetes can be diagnosed in children and teens, and adults of any age.
What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes aren’t always obvious and they can take a long time to develop. Sometimes, there are no symptoms. It’s important to remember that not everyone with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes develops these warning signs, and not everyone who has these symptoms necessarily has type 2 diabetes.
But kids or teens who develop type 2 diabetes may:
- Need to pee a lot. The kidneys respond to high levels of glucose in the blood by flushing out the extra glucose in urine . Kids with high blood sugar levels need to pee more often and make more pee.
- Drink a lot of liquids. Because they’re peeing so often and losing so much fluid, they can become very thirsty and drink a lot in an attempt to keep the levels of body water normal.
- Feel tired often. This is because the body can’t use glucose for energy properly.
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Exercise And Other Variables
The most complicated part of diabetes management is that its never-ending. Your blood sugars never stay in one place for long, because so many aspects of daily living and the normal functions of the human body will raise or lower your blood sugar levels and your insulin needs.
Even if you were to eat the same foods every single day, the other variables that impact the bodys blood sugar levels and insulin needs would require just as much attention each day.
Exercising, for example, with type 1 diabetes is remarkably complex. Simply changing the type of exercise and the time of day you perform that exercise will drastically change how you must prepare your blood sugar to prevent high or low blood sugars during and after your workout.
Read more about exercising with diabetes and insulin:
Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes Different
The first symptoms of type 1 diabetes appear when blood sugar gets too high. Symptoms include thirst, hunger, fatigue, frequent urination, weight loss, tingling or numbness in the feet, and blurred vision. Very high blood sugar can cause rapid breathing, dry skin, fruity breath, and nausea.
Meanwhile, the first symptoms of type 2 diabetes may not show up for many years meaning the disease can ravage a persons body without them realizing it. Early symptoms include frequent infections, fatigue, frequent urination, thirst, hunger, blurred vision, erectile dysfunction in men, and pain or numbness in the hands or feet. Drincic notes that “symptoms of type 2 diabetes don’t start as suddenly as symptoms of type 1 diabetes.”
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What Causes Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes develops when the pancreas makes less insulin than the body needs, and the body cells stop responding to insulin. They dont take in sugar as they should. Sugar builds up in your blood. When cells dont respond to insulin, this is called insulin resistance. It’s usually caused by:
- Lifestyle factors, including obesity and a lack of exercise.
- Genetics, or abnormal genes, that prevent cells from working as they should.
Are The Same Tests Used To Diagnose Both Types
A fasting blood sugar measurement can be used to diagnose any type of diabetes. This test measures the level of sugar in the bloodstream in the morning before eating breakfast. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels are less than 100 milligrams per deciliter . Fasting plasma glucose levels of more than 126 mg/dl on two or more tests on different days indicate diabetes. A random blood glucose test can also be used to diagnose diabetes. A blood glucose level of 200 mg/dl or higher indicates diabetes.
Another test that is often used is a blood test to measure levels of glycated hemoglobin . This test provides a measure of the average levels of blood glucose over the past 3 months. Other names for the A1C test are HbA1C and glycosylated hemoglobin test.
Tests to identify the abnormal antibodies produced by the immune system are used to diagnose type 1 diabetes. Some of the antibodies seen in type 1 diabetes include anti-islet cell antibodies, anti-insulin antibodies and anti-glutamic decarboxylase antibodies.
Type 1 treatment: Insulin is the treatment of choice for type 1 diabetes, because the body responds appropriately to insulin and the problem is a lack of insulin production by the pancreas.
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Other Forms Of Diabetes
In 1% to 5% of people who have diabetes, other conditions might be the cause. These include diseases of the pancreas, certain surgeries and medications, and infections. In these cases, your doctor might want to keep an eye on your blood sugar levels.
American Diabetes Association: “Frequently Asked Questions about Pre-Diabetes,” “Type 2 Diabetes,” “The Dangerous Toll of Diabetes,” tion: “Gestational Diabetes,” “About Insulin and Other Drugs.”
National Library of Medicine: “Diabetes.”
National Diabetes Education Project: “About Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes.”
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse : “National Diabetes Statistics, 2011.”
Merck Manual Consumer Version: âDiabetes Mellitus .â
CDC: âAbout Diabetes,â âPrediabetes: Your Chance to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes.â
World Journal of Diabetes: âType 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.â
How Is Type 1 Diabetes And Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed
Despite very distinct symptoms, both types of diabetes can be mistaken for lingering flu symptoms or other ordinary illness that doesnt require treatment. Its crucial that anyone displaying signs of diabetes have their blood sugar levels tested and urine tested for ketones.
According to the American Diabetes Association, the following blood sugar and A1c results are used to diagnose prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.
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Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors:
Your risk of developing type 2 diabetes is higher if your diet is high in carbs and fat but low in fiber, if youre not very physically active and/or if you have high blood pressure. High alcohol consumption and age are also risk factors. Though genes do play a role in the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, it can be prevented with the right lifestyle choices, unlike type 1.
Which Type Of Diabetes Is Worse 1 Or 2
Answering which type of diabetes is worse is not an easy thing. Each case is unique, and both can cause complications.
Type 1 diabetics do need insulin to live, and usually from a young age. But Type 2s can require huge amounts of insulin as your resistance increases.
Type 2s can live undiagnosed for several years and have complications when diagnosed. People with type 1 diabetes are usually diagnosed quickly and can act immediately.But do types 1 with diabetes live for a longer period of time? Not always.
Finally, lets clear up a great myth. When someone has type 2 diabetes, it is not always their fault. Type 2 diabetes has a strong genetic link . If your twin has type 2 diabetes, he has a nearly 100% chance of developing it.
While staying fit and eating right can delay and prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, it doesnt always guarantee prevention. If you have the genes, you are highly likely to develop type 2 diabetes. What if you dont have the genes? You can increase your risk.
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What Are Treatments For Type 2 Diabetes
Unless its absolutely necessary, insulin should not be used to treat type 2 diabetes. Dr. Bergquist explains, Injecting insulin improves blood sugar but worsens underlying insulin resistance. Insulin is a fat-storage hormone. Higher insulin leads to more fat storage in organs where its toxic, making them more insulin resistant.
Insulin should only be used when the pancreas fails and the B cells cannot be regenerated, says Dr. Apovian. When type 2 diabetes is caught early enough, you can reverse it with lifestyle, medication, and bariatric surgery. In certain cases, when a person is severely overweight, bariatric surgery is a successful treatment for type 2 diabetes, because it effectively decreases a persons body weight set point and can reverse hormonal imbalances that underlie obesity and fuel type 2 diabetes.
Additionally, new type 2 diabetes medications have been approved by the FDA, including a class of drugs known as glucagon-like-peptides , which aid the pancreas in producing more insulin by decreasing glucose production in the liver. Researchers are also working to understand the role that inflammation and hormonal imbalances have in the development of T2D.
Can Type 1 And Type 2 Of Diabetes Be Prevented
Diabetes is a complicated condition and although it is possible to regulate the same by adopting a healthy diet, a balanced lifestyle, and other important aspects, preventing either type 1 or type 2 is not a very common thing. Having said that, you can delay or postpone the onset of type 2 diabetes by adopting healthy measures.
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Insulin Insulin Pumps Insulin Pods
Every single person diagnosed with type 1 diabetes needs insulin via injection or pump in order to stay alive. People with type 1 diabetes may still produce a little bit of their own insulin, but it will not be enough to keep their body functioning.
Some people with type 2 diabetes need insulin while others do not. While weve been taught by magazines and news shows that diabetes can be cured with diet and exercise, thats far from the truth.
For multiple daily injections: If youre taking your insulin with a syringe or insulin pen, you will need a long-acting insulin thats taken once or twice a day to replicate the way your pancreas would normally release a constant drip, drip, drip of insulin all day and all night long.
Then, you will need a fast-acting insulin for meals, and for corrections when your blood sugar is high. Fast-acting insulin replicates the way your pancreas would normally release a large bolus of insulin to manage the food you eat.
For insulin pumps or pods: People using pumps or pods to deliver their insulin will only use fast or rapid-acting insulin that you program with your healthcare team to deliver insulin that drip, drip, drip all day long as well as larger boluses of insulin for meals and corrections.
How To Reduce The Risk
The advice to people with diabetes is to practice social distancing and handwashing like the rest of the population, to maintain a healthy lifestyle, and to try to keep blood sugars in an ideal range where possible.
But aiming for tighter blood sugar control can feel daunting. Now might be a particularly difficult time for people to manage diabetes, with disruptions in care, routines, activity, mental wellbeing and diet known to create challenges. Certain groups will face more challenges than others both COVID-19 and diabetes disproportionately affect people from non-white ethnic groups and people from less advantaged backgrounds.
Support is available from healthcare providers and from organisations like Diabetes UK. Now more than ever, governments and healthcare systems need to ensure all people with diabetes get the support they need.
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Where Can I Find Help And Support For Managing My Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes Educators. The American Diabetes Association has a diabetes education finder, where you can find diabetes counseling in your zip code. You may also want to work with a diabetes dietitian to clarify questions about carbs, eating schedules, and more. A diabetes dietitian falls under the umbrella of medical nutrition therapy and is covered by Medicare and many insurance policies. Exercise is another crucial part of care, and you may be eligible for physical therapy as part of your diabetes medical management plan. You can find more information on state-by-state coverage here.
Type 2 diabetes isnt a solo condition. Its largely influenced by our culture and community health practices. Expanding your community to a healthy support system can also be an important part of managing your type 2 diabetes.
Family and friends. Get them on board by creating new food habits together. Often, we feel pressure to maintain the status quo for our families while adjusting our own diets. The changes youre making to improve your health will also improve the health of your family. Choose healthful meals that you can all enjoy together and try to resist making separate meals for yourself.
- Cardiovascular disease
Hyperglycemia can cause myriad problems, with the primary complications being:
- Diabetic ketoacidosis
- Diabetic coma
- Feeling shaky
- Tingling or numbness in your lips, tongue, or cheeks
Type 1 Vs Type 2 Diabetes: Whats The Difference
Type 2 diabetes is not the same as Type 1 diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes, your pancreas doesnt make any insulin. In Type 2, your pancreas doesnt make enough insulin, and the insulin it is making doesnt always work as it should. Both types are forms of diabetes mellitus, meaning they lead to hyperglycemia .
Type 2 diabetes usually affects older adults, though its becoming more common in children. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but people of any age can get it.
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Is Diagnosing Diabetes Types 1 And 2 Similar
Blood tests used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes include fasting blood sugar, a hemoglobin A1C test, and a glucose tolerance test. The A1C test measures the average blood sugar level over the past few months. The glucose tolerance test measures blood sugar after a sugary drink is given.
“The blood sugar testing we do to diagnose and manage type 1 diabetes is very similar to the testing we do for type 2 diabetes,” says Drincic. “We can do a blood test that looks for antibodies. That tells us if it is type 1 or 2.” In type 1 diabetes, the immune system makes antibodies that act against the cells in the pancreas that make insulin, and these antibodies can be detected in a blood test. Your doctor may suspect type 2 diabetes based on your symptoms and risk factors, such as obesity and family history.
The Nhs And Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is already one of the most common long term health conditions and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the UK is growing year on year.
The cost of treating a growing number of people with type 2 diabetes, and the health complications associated with the condition, is estimated to cost the NHS around £12 billion a year on direct and indirect care.
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How Are Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Treated
There is no cure for type 1 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin, so they must take regular injections. Testing your blood sugar is essential for managing type 1 diabetes, because levels can rise and fall rapidly.
Type 2 diabetes can be controlled and even reversed with diet and exercise alone, although many people need additional support. If lifestyle changes arent enough, your doctor may prescribe medications that help your body use insulin more effectively.
In the case of type 2 diabetes, controlling blood sugar levels is the best way to know if you are reaching your goal. If your blood sugar levels are high, your doctor may recommend insulin injections.
Treatment For Low Blood Glucose
If you have type 2 diabetes that’s controlled using insulin or certain types of tablets , you may experience episodes of hypoglycaemia.
Hypoglycaemia is where your blood glucose levels become very low.
Mild hypoglycaemia can make you feel shaky, weak and hungry, but it can usually be controlled by eating or drinking something sugary.
If you have a hypo, you should initially have a form of carbohydrate that will act quickly, such as a sugary drink or glucose tablets.
This should be followed by a longer-acting carbohydrate, such as a cereal bar, sandwich or piece of fruit.
In most cases, these measures will be enough to raise your blood glucose level to normal. You should aim for a hypo to be treated and to recheck your blood glucose level within 15 minutes.
If blood glucose still less than 4mmol/l then repeat the treatment using a fast acting carbohydrate. When your blood glucose returns to normal then have your longer acting carbohydrate.
If you develop severe hypoglycaemia, you may become drowsy and confused, and you may even lose consciousness.
If this occurs, you may need to have an injection of glucagon into your muscle or glucose into a vein. Glucagon is a hormone that quickly increases your blood glucose levels.
You may require input from a health care professional. If the glucagon is not successful, you may require an injection of dextrose into your vein.
Your diabetes care team can advise you on how to avoid a hypo and what to do if you have one.
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