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Which Of The Following Is Most Closely Related To Diabetes

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Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes

Generally, type 1 diabetes develops quickly. You may notice some of the following specific symptoms:

  • Weight loss
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis. This is a condition in which the body produces excess blood acids . According to WebMD, “Diabetic   is a life-threatening condition that develops when cells in the body are unable to get the sugar they need for energy because there is not enough .”

Symptoms of this type of diabetes can occur in children and young adults.

Can Diabetes Cause Headaches Or Dizziness

Yes, its possible to develop headaches or dizziness if your blood glucose level is too low usually below 70 mg/dL. This condition is called hypoglycemia. You can read about the other symptoms hypoglycemia causes in this article.Hypoglycemia is common in people with Type 1 diabetes and can happen in some people with Type 2 diabetes who take insulin or medications such as sulfonylureas.

Rna Isolation Taqman Low Density Array And Rt

A multiphase, case-control study was designed to systematically characterize the serum miRNA expression profile for T2DM patients with and without microvascular complications . RNA isolation, TaqMan Low Density Array and RT-qPCR assay were performed as previously described. More details can be seen in .

Future Breath Test For Diabetes

Diabetes and oral medication

Scientists may have discovered a new way of monitoring diabetes, by performing a breath test rather than the usual blood test, reported The Daily Telegraph. Children with type 1 diabetes were found to exhale higher concentrations of methyl nitrites when they have too much glucose in their blood, the newspaper explained. It is hoped that this finding could lead to new methods of testing for and monitoring diabetes.

The story is based on a small experimental study. Although the initial findings suggest a potential role for breath analysis as an indicator of blood sugar levels, they only seem to be useful in certain situations. Without further research, these preliminary results cannot be extrapolated to conclude that this test will have a role in diabetes monitoring and management in all types of diabetes.

Association Of Serum Mirna Levels With Clinical Parameters

We subsequently wondered whether serum miRNA expression levels were correlated with serological biochemical parameters. We evaluated the associations between the clinical features and miRNA abundance using Spearman rank correlation analysis in all of the studied individuals. As demonstrated in , all five miRNAs had strong positive correlations with GLU and TG and significantly negative relationships with HDL-C . Together with the RT-qPCR results, these data suggest that the upregulation of these five miRNAs in T2DM patients may be involved in T2DM pathogenesis and diabetic microvascular complications.

How Do I Check My Blood Glucose Level Why Is This Important

Checking your blood glucose level is important because the results help guide decisions about what to eat, your physical activity and any needed medication and insulin adjustments or additions.

The most common way to check your blood glucose level is with a blood glucose meter. With this test, you prick the side of your finger, apply the drop of blood to a test strip, insert the strip into the meter and the meter will show your glucose level at that moment in time. Your healthcare provider will tell you how often youll need to check your glucose level.

Get Help For Depression

Depression can make it difficult for a person to maintain a healthy lifestyle and follow recommended treatments for both diabetes and heart health, Feldman says. So thats another thing that should be screened for.

According to the Mayo Clinic, people with diabetes are at increased risk for depression; also, depression may increase a persons risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Unfortunately, Feldman says, many people are reluctant to report because they feel that theyre admitting weakness. The stigma associated with going to behavioral health should be lifted, she adds. And physicians should freely refer patients to behavioral health if they feel that the patients need it. If needed, try working with your doctor to help you find providers in your insurance network.

Additional reporting by Katherine Lee

Age And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Similar to metabolic syndrome, the prevalence of impaired fasting glycemia and T2DM increase with rising age. In the United States, the estimated percentage of people aged 20 years or older having diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes in 2005-2008 was increasing with age. In the age group of 20-44 years, it was estimated about 3.7% people had diabetes; while in the age group 45-64 years the number increased to 13.7%; and the highest percentage of 26.9% was found in the age group of 65 years . Similar feature was also observed n England, where the prevalence of diabetes was increasing with age. The peak prevalence of diabetes can be found in the age group of 65-74 years with 15.7% in men and 10.4% in women . The study by Suastika et al. on Bali population showed that the prevalences of IFG and T2DM were higher in the elderly than in the younger age group, i.e. nearly two-fold and more than two fold, respectively . There was a tendency of increasing frequency of IFG and T2DM with increasing age . Data from rural Taiwan showed that prevalence of DM was 16.9% and that of IFG was 25.5% among elderly Chinese in 2000. During a 5 year follow up, cumulative prevalences of DM and IFG were 23.7% and 27.9%, respectively. The 5-years cumulative incidence of newly onset diabetes was 6.8%. Hypertension, overt proteinuria, IFG and high total cholesterol were independent risk factors for new onset diabetes .

Metabolic syndrome and its components ~19

Figure 1.


White Rice Linked To Diabetes Risk

Study: Eating White Rice Regularly Raises Diabetes Risk

Laura J. Martin, MD

March 15, 2012 — Eating white rice regularly, as is commonly done in many Asian countries, may increase risk for developing type 2 diabetes, a new study shows.

Researchers looked at data from four studies: two in Asian countries and two in Western countries . All participants were diabetes-free when the studies began.

On average, people from Asian countries ate about four servings of white rice daily. Individuals in Western countries, however, ate less than five servings a week. The study found that the more servings of white rice a person eats per day, the greater their risk for developing type 2 diabetes, the form of most closely linked to .

According to the new study, diabetes risk rises by about 10% with each increased serving per day of white rice.

The new findings appear in the journal BMJ.

The study was not designed to show how white rice may increase the risk for diabetes, but researcher Qi Sun, MD, has some theories on the matter. White rice ranks high on the glycemic index, which means it can cause a sudden spike in blood sugar levels. White rice is also low in fiber that can help lower the risk for developing diabetes, Sun says. He is an instructor in medicine at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston.

Swap White Rice For Brown Rice

Sun suggests choosing whole grains instead of white carbs. This is not to say that a person can never eat white rice. It is all about moderation: âEating white rice one to two times per week is fine.â

Spyros Mezitis, MD, agrees that all white starchy foods increase the risk for diabetes when eaten in excess. He is an endocrinologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.

Anyone at risk for diabetes should focus on reducing the number of calories they eat, losing weight , and replacing white carbs with whole grain foods. âAlways try to eat less and go for the whole grain instead of the white starch,â he says.

Tracy Breen, MD, is the director of diabetes care for North Shore-LIJ Health System in Great Neck, N.Y. She says that what you eat, and how much of it you eat, is only part of the equation. Genes also count when it comes to diabetes risk.

âIt is never just one thing,â she says. âItâs what you eat, what you do, and your genes. We canât change our genes, so itâs important to think about how food plays into our culture.â

Some experts, including Connie Diekman, RD, say that the jury is still out on whether white rice really increases diabetes risk. She is the director of university at Washington University in St. Louis.

Carbs And Blood Sugar

Keeping your blood sugar levels on track means watching what you eat, plus taking medicines like insulin if you need to. Your doctor may also have mentioned that you should keep track of how many carbohydrates you eat. But what exactly are carbohydrates and how do they affect your blood sugar?

The foods we eat contain nutrients that provide energy and other things the body needs, and one of these is . The two main forms of carbohydrates are:

  • sugars such as fructose, glucose, and lactose
  • starches, which are found in foods such as starchy vegetables , grains, rice, breads, and cereals
  • The body breaks down or converts most carbohydrates into the sugar . Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream, and with the help of a hormone called it travels into the cells of the body where it can be used for energy.

    People with diabetes have problems with insulin that can cause blood sugar levels to rise. For people with type 1 diabetes, the pancreas loses the ability to make insulin. For people with type 2 diabetes, the body can’t respond normally to the insulin that is made.

    Who Is At Risk For Metabolic Syndrome

    These states are the

    Knowing your risk factors for any disease can help guide you to take the appropriate actions. This includes changing behaviors and being monitored by your healthcare provider for the disease.

    Risk factors most closely tied to metabolic syndrome include:

    • Age. You are more likely to have metabolic syndrome the older you are.
    • Ethnicity. African Americans and Mexican Americans are more likely to get metabolic syndrome. African-American women are about 60% more likely than African-American men to have the syndrome.
    • Body mass index greater than 25. The BMI is a measure of body fat compared with height and weight.
    • Personal or family history of diabetes. Women who have had diabetes during pregnancy or people who have a family member with type 2 diabetes are at greater risk for metabolic syndrome.
    • Smoking

    Here are the types of treatment that may be recommended for metabolic syndrome.

    Complications Of Gestational Diabetes

    While most women who develop gestational diabetes often deliver healthy babies, they are still susceptible to certain health complications. As mentioned in our previous , the following complications might affect you and the baby.

    One of the 5 types of diabetes is gestational diabetes. It results in increased blood sugar in the mother and may increase the chances of a preterm baby. | Image courtesy: stock image

    Islet Cell Autoantibodies Predict Autoimmune Diabetes

    Early studies primarily of first-degree relatives followed over time demonstrate that islet cell autoantibodies may predict type 1 diabetes . After the development of robust autoantibody assays that are high capacity, precise, and reproducible, considerable data have accumulated to demonstrate that autoantigen-specific antibodies predict type 1 diabetes . The quest to identify one type of autoantibody as a better predictor than another has failed, because no clear order of appearance has been detected. Rather, several studies taken together suggest that the number of autoantibodies is predictive rather than the order of their appearance . This is particularly true for young children, since the age as well as sex affect the expression of both insulin and IA-2 autoantibodies . The diagnostic sensitivity of these two autoantibodies decreases with increasing age. While IAAs have their highest diagnostic sensitivity below the age of 10 years , autoantibodies to GAD65 remain at 7080% regardless of age .

    The Safe & Effective Care Environment: The Management Of Care Practice Questions

    • You should respond to the couple by stating that only unanticipated treatments and procedures that are not included in the advance directive can be made by the legally appointed durable power of attorney for healthcare decisions.
    • You should be aware of the fact that the wife of the client has a knowledge deficit relating to advance directives and durable powers of attorney for healthcare decisions and plan an educational activity to meet this learning need.
    • You should be aware of the fact that the client has a knowledge deficit relating to advance directives and durable powers of attorney for healthcare decisions and plan an educational activity to meet this learning need.
    • You should reinforce the wifes belief that legally married spouses automatically serve for the other spouses durable power of attorney for health care decisions and that others than the spouse cannot be legally appointed while people are married

    Show Correct Response >>>

    Correct Response: A

    You should respond to the couple by stating that only unanticipated treatments and procedures that are not included in the advance directive can be made by the legally appointed durable power of attorney for healthcare decisions.

    Show Correct Response >>>

    Correct Response: B, D

    Show Correct Response >>>

    Correct Response: B

    • Case manager

    Show Correct Response >>>

    Correct Response: D

    • Client advocate

    Show Correct Response >>>

    Correct Response: A

    Show Correct Response >>>

    Correct Response: B


    Show Correct Response >>>




    How Is Diabetes Diagnosed

    Diabetes is diagnosed and managed by checking your glucose level in a blood test. There are three tests that can measure your blood glucose level: fasting glucose test, random glucose test and A1c test.

    • Fasting plasma glucose test: This test is best done in the morning after an eight hour fast .
    • Random plasma glucose test: This test can be done any time without the need to fast.
    • A1c test: This test, also called HbA1C or glycated hemoglobin test, provides your average blood glucose level over the past two to three months. This test measures the amount of glucose attached to hemoglobin, the protein in your red blood cells that carries oxygen. You dont need to fast before this test.
    • Oral glucose tolerance test: In this test, blood glucose level is first measured after an overnight fast. Then you drink a sugary drink. Your blood glucose level is then checked at hours one, two and three.
    Type of test

    Can Diabetes Kill You

    Yes, its possible that if diabetes remains undiagnosed and uncontrolled it can cause devastating harm to your body. Diabetes can cause heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and coma. These complications can lead to your death. Cardiovascular disease in particular is the leading cause of death in adults with diabetes.

    How Is Diabetes During Pregnancy Diagnosed

    Your doctor will check you for diabetes during pregnancy.

    If you have risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as being overweight, your doctor will check you early in pregnancy. Your doctor may test you during your first checkup.  

    Your healthcare provider will screen you for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. This screening is done using an oral glucose tolerance test . An OGTT checks a woman’s blood sugar levels after she has sugar . You may have one of these tests:

    • One-step test. After not eating , youll have 75 grams of glucose. Your healthcare provider will check your blood sugar after a set amount of time.

    • Two-step test. Youll have 50 grams of glucose . Your healthcare provider will check your blood sugar after a set amount of time. If your blood sugar is high, youll do another OGTT with 100 grams of glucose.

    What Were The Results Of The Study

    Of the gases tested, the researchers found that the concentration of exhaled methyl nitrate most closely followed the levels of glucose in the blood; this close relationship was shown in 16 of the 18 experiments.

    They found that in the experiments where the childrens blood sugar levels were kept at a constant level throughout, the level of methyl nitrate expired did not differ significantly from the start to the end of the experiment. However, methyl nitrate concentrations were significantly greater at the start of the experiments where the children had a raised blood sugar, and decreased significantly when the blood sugar levels had been corrected by insulin.

    Surgery To Treat Type 2 Diabetes

    Why do more and more people get diabetes? The doctor ...

    Nearly all individuals who have surgery to treat diabetes show improvement in their diabetes, sometimes as quickly as a few days after surgery. They experience lower blood sugar levels, need less diabetes medications, and see an improvement in diabetes-related health problems. Overall, 78 percent of patients experience remission thus eliminating the need for diabetes medications.

    Diabetes surgery performed today has been highly refined over the course of the past 70 years and is among the best studied therapies in modern medicine. These operations result in less food intake and decreased calories absorbed. Most importantly, however, these operations result in changes to the metabolism that affect intestinal hormones that regulate blood sugar control, often before the patient loses any weight. In addition, these procedures reduce hunger, increase the sense of fullness after meals, and assist the bodys ability to achieve a healthy weight. Diabetes surgery has been proven to be the most effective therapy for diabetes but also greatly improves obesity and other associated conditions.

    Age And Cardiovascular Diseases

    Cardiovascular disease remains to be the most important cause of death in all countries over the world. Although certain reports from some developed countries indicate the incidence tends to decrease, from many countries there are reports mentioning that its incidence tends to increase. Cardiovascular disease is a complex disease; too many risk factors are involved in its pathogenesis. In general, risk factors for CVD can be divided into two main groups, namely traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Traditional risk factors include age , male sex, family history of coronary heart disease, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, central obesity, unhealthy cholesterol levels , and low physical activity . In addition, some non-traditional risk factors for CVD are reported elsewhere .

    Peripheral artery disease , a marker of systemic atherosclerosis, is frequently related with age. It mostly starts at 40 and increases after the age 70 years. PAD is the independent risk factor for mortality caused by CVD . A study by Kuswardhani and Suastika on elderly patients who visited the Geriatric Outpatient Clinic, Sanglah Hospital showed that diabetic patients with PAD had higher age and higher homocystein levels , compared with those without PAD. High age had 7.4 times risk than those with lower age and high homocystein levels had 2.5 times risk than those with lower homocystein levels, to develop PAD. By multivariate analysis , it was found that only age played a role in PAD event.

    Can Diabetes Cause Hearing Loss

    Scientists dont have firm answers yet but there appears to be a correlation between hearing loss and diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association, a recent study found that hearing loss was twice as common in people with diabetes versus those who didnt have diabetes. Also, the rate of hearing loss in people with prediabetes was 30% higher compared with those who had normal blood glucose levels. Scientists think diabetes damages the blood vessels in the inner ear, but more research is needed.

    How Does Diabetes Affect Your Heart Eyes Feet Nerves And Kidneys

    Blood vessels are located throughout our bodys tissues and organs. They surround our bodys cells, providing a transfer of oxygen, nutrients and other substances, using blood as the exchange vehicle. In simple terms, diabetes doesnt allow glucose to get into cells and it damages blood vessels in/near these organs and those that nourish nerves. If organs, nerves and tissues cant get the essentials they need to properly function, they can begin to fail.Proper function means that your hearts blood vessels, including arteries, are not damaged . In your kidneys, this means that waste products can be filtered out of your blood. In your eyes, this means that the blood vessels in your retina remain intact. In your feet and nerves, this means that nerves are nourished and that theres blood flow to your feet. Diabetes causes damage that prevents proper function.

    How Are Pregnant Women With Diabetes And Their Infants Treated

    During pregnancy, your healthcare provider will watch you and your baby closely. You may be treated by a specialist who cares for pregnant women with diabetes.

    Controlling your blood sugar levels is a must. This is the best way to reduce your babys risks. Youll likely need to do the following to care for your diabetes:

    • Watch your blood sugar levels closely. Your healthcare provider may ask you to test your blood sugar at home.

    • Take insulin as prescribed. Your dose of insulin may change throughout pregnancy.

    • Watch your weight. Your doctor may tell you to gain less weight if youre overweight or obese.

    Your babys treatment depends on how well you controlled your blood sugar in the last part of pregnancy and during labor and delivery. Treatment will also depend on your childs symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.

    Key Points About An Infant Of A Mother With Diabetes

    Two types of diabetes can happen in pregnancy. One is gestational diabetes and the other is pre-gestational diabetes.

    • All women are screened for gestational diabetes. This is done between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy.  

    • Having diabetes during pregnancy can harm your baby.

    • Your babys treatment depends on how well you control your blood sugar in the last part of pregnancy and during labor and delivery.

    • Controlling your blood sugar is the best way to reduce your babys risks.

    Insulin Resistance And Severe Insulin Resistance

    Insulin resistance occurs when the cells of the body do not respond properly to insulin. This means the insulin produced by the pancreas cannot be used effectively. People with IR may need a much larger amount of insulin or other insulin sensitising medications to reach and stay within their blood glucose targets. 

    Fcs411: Chapt 20 Diabetes

    Diabetes mellitus describes a group of metabolic disorders characterized by _____. By the time symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop, damage to the beta cells has often occurred and the first sign of the disease is _____. If a person does not produce sufficient insulin, he is more likely to develop _____. Acetone breath is a characteristic symptom of hypoglycemia. T or F? Close monitoring of glucose levels is especially important for the pregnant woman with diabetes. T or F? Obesity alone can cause some degree of insulin resistance. T or F? Excessive urine production is known as _____. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome leads to profoundly high levels of blood glucose, mainly due to _____. In treated diabetes, hypoglycemia is a possible complication of _____. When the plasma glucose concentration rises above about _____ mg/dL, it exceeds the renal threshold, the concentration at which the kidneys begin to pass glucose into the urine. Development of type 2 diabetes is closely associated with overweight and obesity. T or F? Physical activity has not been shown to aid blood glucose control in people with type 1 diabetes. T or F? The primary cause of type 2 diabetes is autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. T or F? Metabolic syndrome consists of a cluster of disorders that increases the risk of developing _____. The leading cause of death in people with diabetes is _____. Type 2 diabetes is most closely associated with _____.Continue reading >>


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