Signs Of Type 1 Diabetes
Diabetes type 1 is quite different to its counterpart, the type 2 diabetes. The major symptoms of both are same but there are certain signs which differs the type 1 from type 2.
The major symptoms of type 1 diabetes are:
- High levels of urine
- Unusual fatigue throughout the day
- Unusual and unexplained loss of weight
- Loss of muscle fat
- Confusion or coma
- Lack of interest in day to day activities for young children
Ketoacidosis affects 1 out of 4 patients suffering from diabetes type 1. One should monitor the 4Ts regularly to prevent the onset of Ketoacidosis. Type 1 diabetes generally sets in quickly within a span of few days.
It can affect kids also and one should monitor the signs regularly in small kids especially if diabetes runs in the families and seek professional help before its too late and ketoacidosis or other life threatening complications set in.
If Type 1 Diabetes is left untreated in adults, it could lead to a condition called the LADA Latent Autoimmune diabetes of adulthood. LADA develops slowly and sometimes this condition is often misdiagnosed as type 2 Diabetes.
As the sugar in the blood fluctuates in diabetes, low blood sugar also occurs. People take medications to increase the levels of insulin in the body. Too many medications, eating less or skipping meals can lead to low blood sugar.
Listed below are signs of low blood sugar:
Are You At Risk For Prediabetes
About 84 million adults in the US have prediabetes, and about 90% do not know they have it until a routine blood test is ordered, or symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop. For example, excessive thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss. If you have prediabetes also it puts you at risk for heart attack, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes In Toddlers: Causes Signs And Treatment
Diabetes is a chronic condition that can appear at any age, even in the first year of a childâs life. Sometimes, the diagnosis is delayed in babies and young children because diabetes symptoms are similar to those of other illnesses. The most common signs of diabetes in toddlers include an increase in thirst and more frequent or increased urination. Read on to find out more about the signs of diabetes and how diabetes is diagnosed, as well as what treatments may be available, and what you can do day-to-day to manage diabetes in your toddler.
Also Check: Normal A1c For Type 1 Diabetes
How Is Diabetes Managed
Diabetes affects your whole body. To best manage diabetes, youll need to take steps to keep your risk factors under control and within the normal range, including:
- Keep your blood glucose levels as near to normal as possible by following a diet plan, taking prescribed medication and increasing your activity level.
- Maintain your blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels as near the normal ranges as possible.
- Control your blood pressure. Your blood pressure should not be over 140/90 mmHg.
You hold the keys to managing your diabetes by:
- Planning what you eat and following a healthy meal plan. Follow a Mediterranean diet or Dash diet. These diets are high in nutrition and fiber and low in fats and calories. See a registered dietitian for help understanding nutrition and meal planning.
- Exercising regularly. Try to exercise at least 30 minutes most days of the week. Walk, swim or find some activity you enjoy.
- Losing weight if you are overweight. Work with your healthcare team to develop a weight-loss plan.
- Taking medication and insulin, if prescribed, and closely following recommendations on how and when to take it.
- Quitting smoking .
You have a lot of control on a day-to-day basis in managing your diabetes!
What Are The Complications Of Diabetes
If your blood glucose level remains high over a long period of time, your bodys tissues and organs can be seriously damaged. Some complications can be life-threatening over time.
- Dental problems.
Complications of gestational diabetes:
In the mother:Preeclampsia , risk of gestational diabetes during future pregnancies and risk of diabetes later in life.
In the newborn: Higher-than-normal birth weight, low blood sugar , higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes over time and death shortly after birth.
Don’t Miss: Metformin Side Effects Rash
You’re Losing Weightbut Aren’t Trying To
Unexplained weight loss can happen for lots of reasons, and diabetes is one of them. Goundan explains that insulin helps your body move sugar from your blood to your cells, so when you have an insulin resistance, you dont get enough energy into your cells despite all that sugar flowing through your body. Because youre unable to get enough energy from sugar, your body burns your own fat and muscle for energy,” Kellis says. “Weight loss can be pretty significant, sometimes 10 to 20 pounds.”
Generally, doctors recommend visiting the doc if you unintentionally lose between 5 to 10 percent of your body weight over the course of six months.
Causes And Diagnosis Of Diabetes In Dogs
The most common cause of diabetes in dogs is a genetic predisposition . The following breeds are those most commonly diagnosed with this disorder:
Additionally, overweight dogs or those receiving a low protein and high-carbohydrate diet are likely to suffer from diabetes as well due to disbalance of glucose.
To diagnose a dog with diabetes, a veterinarian needs the animal’s detailed medical history, as much as you can gather up to the date you noticed changes. A blood count, urinalysis, and chemical profile should give them enough for initial diagnosis and a treatment program.
If the vet suspects secondary complications, they may do an x-ray and ultrasound. This will show them if the dog has bladder stones and/or pancreas inflammation.
You May Like: Does Metformin Cause Heart Problems
What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is a condition where the body does not properly convert sugar from the food you eat into energy. Carbs and sugars in your food are converted into glucose during digestion. Your blood vessels then carry this sugar throughout your body to make it available for your cells to convert into energy. Your body uses the hormone insulin to process glucose. Your body may not produce enough insulin, or your cells can become resistant to it. When either of these conditions happen, you can end up in a state where your body cannot extract glucose from your bloodstream, resulting in higher than normal blood sugar levels.
The majority of cases of diabetes are categorized into either type 1 or type 2. Type 1 diabetes is often diagnosed early in life, and the causes are still under investigation. It is thought that there may be a mixture of genetic predisposition and exposure to environmental factors such as viral infections that trigger the onset of type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, is typically the result of poor diet and lifestyle choices that make you predisposed to high blood sugar levels.
What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition. It happens when your liver breaks down fat to use as energy because theres not enough insulin and therefore glucose isnt being used as an energy source. Fat is broken down by the liver into a fuel called ketones. The formation and use of ketones is a normal process if it has been a long time since your last meal and your body needs fuel. Ketones are a problem when your fat is broken down too fast for your body to process and they build up in your blood. This makes your blood acidic, which is a condition called ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be the result of uncontrolled Type 1 diabetes and less commonly, Type 2 diabetes.Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by the presence of ketones in your urine or blood and a basic metabolic panel. The condition develops over several hours and can cause coma and possibly even death.
Recommended Reading: Whole Wheat Mac And Cheese For Diabetics
Can Diabetes Cause Hair Loss
Yes, its possible for diabetes to cause hair loss. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to persistently high blood glucose levels. This, in turn, leads to blood vessel damage and restricted flow, and oxygen and nutrients cant get to the cells that need it including hair follicles. Stress can cause hormone level changes that affect hair growth. If you have Type 1 diabetes, your immune system attacks itself and can also cause a hair loss condition called alopecia areata.
What Are Type 2 Diabetes Signs
Like in the case of type 1 diabetes, the signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes also develop all of a sudden. Following are a few type 2 diabetes symptoms:
- The patient experiences increased thirst as well the frequent need to urinate. This happens because as we know, with diabetes, there is an increase in the level of blood glucose. When this glucose builds up in the bloodstream of your child, the blood cells start pulling all fluids from the cells. As a result, your child feels thirsty more frequently for want of fluids. With this, there is an increasing frequency to urinate as well.
- Healing of sores and wounds take a lot of time.
- The patient experiences lack of energy in his or her body.
- Blurred vision is another known symptom.
- there is a frequent desire to eat food as it is food which provides the necessary energy.
- Another symptom of this type of diabetes is that there could be numbness or irritation that can be caused in the hands and feet.
- Dry mouth, as well as itchy skin, could be amongst a few other symptoms.
- Finally, as the body becomes resistant to insulin, type 2 diabetes leads to the darkening of the skin. The darkening is much more evident in certain areas of the skin which includes the armpits and the neck. This darkening is also known as acanthosis nigricans.
Also Check: What Mg Does Metformin Come In
What Are The Early Signs And Symptoms In Women With Diabetes
Many type 1 and type 2 diabetes symptoms in women are the same as those in men however, there are some symptoms and complications of diabetes unique to women.
Vaginal itching and pain as well as vaginal and oral yeast infections: An overgrowth of Candida albicans fungus can cause vaginal yeast infections and oral yeast infections . Symptoms of vaginal yeast infections include:
Symptoms of oral thrush include:
5. Decrease in sex drive: Women with diabetes may experience lower sex drive , blood flow problems to the genital area, which can decrease sexual response and orgasm, and nerve damage that can result in vaginal dryness and decreased sensation.
6. Polycystic ovary syndrome : This is a common cause of female infertility and insulin resistance. It can cause signs and symptoms like irregular periods, acne, thinning scalp hair, and excess hair growth on the face and body. High insulin levels also increase the risk of developing diabetes, and about half of women with PCOS develop diabetes.
7. Urinary tract infections : A UTI occurs when bacteria enter anywhere in the urinary tract, including the urethra, ureters, kidneys, and bladder. They are much more common in women than in men in general, and they occur more often in people with diabetes because the sugar in the urine presents a breeding ground for bacterial growth.
Why Is Diabetes Increasing
All types of diabetes are increasing in prevalence:
- Type 1 diabetes accounts for 10% of all diabetes and is increasing
- Type 2 diabetes accounts for 85% of all diabetes and is increasing
- Gestational diabetes in pregnancy is increasing
Type 2 diabetes is increasing at the fastest rate. There are large numbers of people with silent, undiagnosed type 2 diabetes which may be damaging their bodies. An estimated 2 million Australians are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and are already showing early signs of the condition.
Type 2 diabetes is one of the major consequences of the obesity epidemic. The combination of massive changes to diet and the food supply, combined with massive changes to physical activity with more sedentary work and less activity, means most populations are seeing more type 2 diabetes.
Genes also play a part with higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese, South Asian, Indian, Pacific Islander and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations.
Recommended Reading: Blood Sugar Levels 500
When To See A Dermatologist
Diabetes can cause many other skin problems. Most skin problems are harmless, but even a minor one can become serious in people who have diabetes. A board-certified dermatologist can recognize skin problems due to diabetes and help you manage them.
Are all dermatologists board certified?
No. See what it takes to become board certified.
ImagesImage 1: Image Courtesy of Clark C. Otley, MD. All Rights Reserved
Images 3, 7, 8, 9: Used with permission of the American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching Slides.
Image 2 from DermNetNZ
Some images used with permission of Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
ReferencesCohen Sabban, EN. Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus from A to Z. Focus session presented at: 74th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology March 4-8, 2016 Washington D.C.
Duff M, Demidova O, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Clinical Diabetes. 2015 33:40-8.
Kalus AA, Chien AJ, et al. Diabetes mellitus and other endocrine disorders. In: Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, et al. Fitzpatricks Dermatology in General Medicine . McGraw Hill Medical, New York, 2008:1461-70.
McKinley-Grant L, Warnick M, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease. In: Kelly AP and Taylor S. Dermatology for Skin of Color. . The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. China, 2009:481-4.
Morgan AJ and Schwartz RA. Diabetic dermopathy: A subtle sign with grave implications. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008 58:447-51.
Yellow Reddish Or Brown Patches On Your Skin
This skin condition often begins as small raised solid bumps that look like pimples. As it progresses, these bumps turn into patches of swollen and hard skin. The patches can be yellow, reddish, or brown.
You may also notice:
- The surrounding skin has a shiny porcelain-like appearance
- You can see blood vessels
- The skin is itchy and painful
- The skin disease goes through cycles where it is active, inactive, and then active again
- Get tested for diabetes, if you have not been diagnosed.
- Work with your doctor to better control your diabetes.
- See a dermatologist about your skin. Necorbiosis lipodica is harmless, but it can lead to complications.
Read Also: Excessive Secretion Of Insulin That Can Cause Hypoglycemia
What Should My Blood Glucose Level Be
Ask your healthcare team what your blood glucose level should be. They may have a specific target range for you. In general, though, most people try to keep their blood glucose levels at these targets:
- Before a meal: between 80 and 130 mg/dL.
- About two hours after the start of a meal: less than 180 mg/dL.
What Are Severe Complications Of Type 1 Diabetes
Nerve damage. High blood-sugar levels over a long period of time can actually cause your blood to thicken. When this happens, the blood has a harder time moving through your blood vessels and restricts the amount of oxygen and nutrients that can be supplied to your nerves. If left untreated, this can lead to a complication called neuropathy, or nerve damage. Nerve damage, in turn, can cause certain areas of your body to permanently lose sensation. It most commonly affects hands and feet.
Kidney damage. Thickened blood is harder to move through your body and can damage the delicate vessels inside of your kidneys. Over time, the blood vessels in your kidneys can narrow and clog, limiting their function. Because high blood sugar can damage nerves as well, people with type 1 diabetes may not be able to feel nerve signals when their bladder is full. An overfull bladder puts pressure on the kidneys and can damage them even further.
Remember, all of these symptoms and complications can be prevented if you work with your endocrinologist on a blood sugar management plan and system that works for you. Every symptom on this list can absolutely be stopped before it progresses. There is no reason a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes has to lead to anything other than an advanced awareness and understanding of how your body reacts to sugar and what to do to keep it in check when things start to get out of whack.
Read Also: What Are The Long-term Side Effects Of Insulin
Your Skins Acting Strange
Prediabetes is usually symptom-less, but in some people it may show itself through milder versions of symptoms that are associated with diabetes, like feeling thirsty or needing to pee more often. Another red flag is skin changes, like discoloration or skin tags.
Some people with prediabetes may have signs of insulin resistance like darkened skin in the armpit or on the back and sides of the neck, or many small skin growths in these same areas, says Lee. Keep a close watch on any skin symptoms and bring your concerns to your doctor.
You Have To Pee All The Time
When you have excess sugar coursing through your blood stream, your body instinctively tries to get rid of it, says Mary Vouyiouklis Kellis, M.D., an endocrinologist at Cleveland Clinic. “Water follows sugar, so you end up having high-volume urine loss, she explains.
If you notice youre suddenly peeing a lot, and more often, for no real reasonespecially if youre waking up a few times during the night to goits time to talk to your doctor, she says.
Don’t Miss: Normal A1c Non Diabetic