What Causes Type 2 Diabetes
Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas that acts like a key to let blood sugar into the cells in your body for use as energy. If you have type 2 diabetes, cells dont respond normally to insulin this is called insulin resistance. Your pancreas makes more insulin to try to get cells to respond. Eventually your pancreas cant keep up, and your blood sugar rises, setting the stage for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and can cause other serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease.
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Risk Factors Of Type 2 Diabetes
Most people may be aware that being overweight increases the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, but there are a few other factors. In fact, not all people with Type 2 are overweight. Diabetes is complex and no two people with the disease are the same.
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases offers a list for Type 2 diabetes risk factors, which includes:
- Age 45 years or older
- Being overweight
- Parent, brother or sister with diabetes
- Family background: African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American or Pacific Islander
- Gestational diabetes while pregnant or had a baby weighing 9 pounds or more
- Higher than normal blood glucose
- Blood pressure above 140/90 or high normal blood pressure
- High cholesterol levels, HDL lower than 35 or triglycerides above 250
- Being physically active less than three times a week
- Having discolored, dirty looking skin in the armpits or around the neck despite scrubbing
- Blood vessel problems in the heart, brain or legs
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Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
First line treatment for type 2 diabetes typically includes a combination of diet modification with regular and appropriate exercise.
The NICE guidelines state that treatment for type 2 diabetes should take into account an individuals needs and preferences into account. People with diabetes should be given the opportunity to make informed decisions about their care and work together with healthcare professionals.
The NICE guidelines encourage having high-fibre, low-glycemic-index carbohydrate in the diet. This allows a good amount of flexibility and it is possible to follow a range of diets, including lower-carb and low-calorie, whilst ensuring you get a good source of low-GI foods such as vegetables, beans and pulses.
Your health team should help you with setting recommendations for carbohydrate and alcohol intake that work for you.
Can A Type 2 Diabetic Become A Type 1
It is not possible for type 2 diabetes to turn into type 1 diabetes. However, a person who originally receives a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes may still get a separate diagnosis of type 1 at a later date. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type, so a doctor might initially suspect that an adult with diabetes has type 2.
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Could A Rash Be A Side Effect Of Tradjenta
There were a few rare reports of a side effect called bullous pemphigoid by people taking Tradjenta in clinical trials. This is a rare but possibly serious condition that causes large, fluid-filled blisters on your skin.
To learn more about these side effects, see Side effect specifics below.
Learn more about some of the side effects Tradjenta may cause. To find out how often side effects occurred in clinical trials, see the drugs prescribing information.
When Should I Call My Doctor
Its important to monitor diabetes very closely if youre sick. Even a common cold can be dangerous if it interferes with your insulin and blood sugar levels. Make a sick day plan with your healthcare provider so you know how often to check your blood sugar and what medications to take.
Contact your provider right away if you experience:
- Confusion or memory loss.
- Nausea and vomiting for more than four hours.
- Problems with balance or coordination.
- Severe pain anywhere in your body.
- Trouble moving your arms or legs.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Type 2 diabetes is a disease where your body doesnt make enough insulin and cant use sugar the way it should. Sugar, or glucose, builds up in your blood. High blood sugar can lead to serious health complications. But Type 2 diabetes is manageable. Regular exercise and a healthy diet can help you manage your blood sugar. You may also need medication or insulin. If you have Type 2 diabetes, you should monitor your blood sugar at home regularly and stay in close communication with your healthcare provider.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 03/25/2021.
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Checking Your Blood Sugar Levels
Checking your blood sugar levels is an important part of managing your diabetes, so well take you through how to check them and what your readings mean.
What Are The Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes tend to develop slowly over time. They can include:
- Urinary tract infections and bladder infections.
Rarely, Type 2 diabetes leads to a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis . DKA is a life-threatening condition that causes your blood to become acidic. People with Type 1 diabetes are more likely to have DKA.
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Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Cured
Type 2 diabetes cannot be cured, but people with the condition may be able to manage their type 2 diabetes through lifestyle changes and, if needed, diabetes medications to control blood sugar levels.
Its also emerging that some people who are overweight or obese can put their type 2 diabetes into remission by losing a substantial amount of weight, especially early in their diagnosis. Their blood sugar measurements return to healthy levels below the diabetes range. Its not a permanent solution, and diabetes could come back, so it needs to be maintained. However, many people were still in remission 2 years later. This should only be tried under the supervision of your doctor.
Can Tradjenta Cause Side Effects Related To The Kidneys
No, Tradjenta isnt known to cause side effects related to the kidneys.
Its important to note that people with diabetes have an increased risk of kidney problems. This is because, over time, high blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys.
If you have questions about your kidney health or function, talk with your doctor.
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More Common Side Effects Of Tradjenta
Tradjenta can cause certain adverse effects , some of which are more common than others. These side effects may be temporary, lasting a few days to weeks. But if the side effects last longer than that, bother you, or become severe, be sure to talk with your doctor or pharmacist.
These are just a few of the more common side effects reported by people who took Tradjenta in clinical trials:
- urinary tract infection
- weight gain
These side effects may be temporary, lasting a few days to weeks. But if the side effects last longer than that, bother you, or become severe, be sure to talk with your doctor or pharmacist.
Note: After the Food and Drug Administration approves a drug, it tracks side effects of the medication. If you develop a side effect while taking Tradjenta and want to tell the FDA about it, visit MedWatch.
* For more information about this side effect, see Side effect specifics below. This side effect was only reported when Tradjenta was used in combination with other medications for diabetes. People using Tradjenta on its own didnt report this side effect.
Type 2 Diabetes Medications Can Also Protect Heart Health
A new study funded by us has shown that certain diabetes medications can protect people living with type 2 diabetes from serious heart complications.
Heart disease can lead to heart attacks and strokes. People living with diabetes have a higher risk of these complications. But some type 2 diabetes medications that work to lower blood sugar levels can also help to lower cardiovascular risk.
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Impact Of Cardiovascular Disease
High blood sugar levels put stress on the body and can damage the nerves and small blood vessels, decreasing circulation.
This means that the heart has to work harder to deliver blood to the bodys tissues, especially those furthest away, such as in the feet and hands.
The increased workload damages the hearts own blood vessels. This can cause the heart to weaken and eventually fail.
A lack of blood reaching the bodys other organs and tissues starves them of oxygen and nutrition, which can cause them to die. Doctors refer to this as necrosis.
The American Heart Association estimate that adults with diabetes are two to four times more likely to experience fatal heart disease than those without diabetes.
Among people aged 65 or older with the disease, the AHA report that:
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Get The Support You Need
Diabetes Canada is here to help provide information and support so that you can live a healthy life. A positive and realistic attitude toward your diabetes can help you manage it. Talking to other people with type 2 diabetes is a great way to learn, and to feel less alone.
Your health-care team is there to help you. Depending on your needs and the resources available in your community, your team may include a family doctor, diabetes educator , endocrinologist, pharmacist, social worker, exercise physiologist, psychologist, foot-care specialist, eye-care specialist. They can answer your questions about how to manage diabetes and work with you to adjust your food plan, activity and medications
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The Influence Of Different Types Of Diabetes On Vascular Complications
1Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130117, China
2Department of Endocrinology, Guanganmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, China
3Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
4Affiliated Hospital of Changchun University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130021, China
The final outcome of diabetes is chronic complications, of which vascular complications are the most serious, which is the main cause of death for diabetic patients and the direct cause of the increase in the cost of diabetes. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the main types of diabetes, and their pathogenesis is completely different. Type 1 diabetes is caused by genetics and immunity to destroy a large number of cells, and insulin secretion is absolutely insufficient, which is more prone to microvascular complications. Type 2 diabetes is dominated by insulin resistance, leading to atherosclerosis, which is more likely to progress to macrovascular complications. This article explores the pathogenesis of two types of diabetes, analyzes the pathogenesis of different vascular complications, and tries to explain the different trends in the progression of different types of diabetes to vascular complications, in order to better prevent diabetes and its vascular complications.
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3. Differences in Pathogenesis of Different Types of Diabetes Mellitus
How Dangerous Is Type 2 Diabetes
This type of diabetes is a result of insulin resistance in the body, and external insulin supply is needed regularly in most cases. However, this condition can be reversed or at least managed to a large extent by making suitable lifestyle changes. Eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly can improve the production of insulin in the body to some extent.
This condition worsens over a period of time, and it usually gets complicated when the patient is suffering from other health conditions like obesity. Otherwise, this condition is easily treatable, and most people get along with this condition without any issues.
When you analyze the nature of these two varieties of diabetes, it can be easily concluded that Type 1 diabetes is more dangerous than Type 2 diabetes as there is no treatment for Type 1 variety and lifelong dependency on insulin is the only solution. On the other hand, Type 2 diabetes can be managed with suitable modifications to eating habits and overall lifestyle.
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What Should A Type 2 Diabetes Meal Plan Include
Ask your healthcare provider or a nutritionist to recommend a meal plan thats right for you. In general, a Type 2 diabetes meal plans should include:
- Lean proteins: Proteins low in saturated fats include chicken, eggs and seafood. Plant-based proteins include tofu, nuts and beans.
- Minimally processed carbohydrates: Refined carbs like white bread, pasta and potatoes can cause your blood sugar to increase quickly. Choose carbs that cause a more gradual blood sugar increase such as whole grains like oatmeal, brown rice and whole-grain pasta.
- No added salt: Too much sodium, or salt, can increase your blood pressure. Lower your sodium by avoiding processed foods like those that come in cans or packages. Choose salt-free spices and use healthy oils instead of salad dressing.
- No added sugars: Avoid sugary foods and drinks, such as pies, cakes and soda. Choose water or unsweetened tea to drink.
- Non-starchy vegetables: These vegetables are lower in carbohydrates, so they dont cause blood sugar spikes. Examples include broccoli, carrots and cauliflower.
Can Type 2 Diabetes Go Away If You Lose Weight
The strongest evidence we have at the moment suggests that type 2 diabetes is mainly put into remission by weight loss. Remission is more likely if you lose weight as soon as possible after your diabetes diagnosis. However, we do know of people who have put their diabetes into remission 25 years after diagnosis.
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Will I Need Medication Or Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes
Some people take medication to manage diabetes, along with diet and exercise. Your healthcare provider may recommend oral diabetes medications. These are pills or liquids that you take by mouth. For example, a medicine called metformin helps control the amount of glucose your liver produces.
You can also take insulin to help your body use sugar more efficiently. Insulin comes in the following forms:
- Injectable insulin is a shot you give yourself. Most people inject insulin into a fleshy part of their body such as their belly. Injectable insulin is available in a vial or an insulin pen.
- Inhaled insulin is inhaled through your mouth. It is only available in a rapid-acting form.
- Insulin pumps deliver insulin continuously, similar to how a healthy pancreas would. Pumps release insulin into your body through a tiny cannula . Pumps connect to a computerized device that lets you control the dose and frequency of insulin.
Is There An Age Where Im More At Risk Of Type 2
Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes as it was primarily seen in middle-aged adults over the age of 40.
However, in recent years, cases of type 2 diabetes have become more common in young adults, teens and children. This increase has been connected to climbing levels of obesity
- See our guide on diabetes risk factors for more information.
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What Is Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a disease where your body cant use energy from food properly. Your pancreas produces insulin to help your cells use glucose . But over time your pancreas makes less insulin and the cells resist the insulin. This causes too much sugar to build up in your blood. High blood sugar levels from Type 2 diabetes can lead to serious health problems including heart disease, stroke or death.
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What Is Diabetes
With diabetes, your body either doesnt make enough insulin or cant use it as well as it should.
Diabetes is a chronic health condition that affects how your body turns food into energy.
Most of the food you eat is broken down into sugar and released into your bloodstream. When your blood sugar goes up, it signals your pancreas to release insulin. Insulin acts like a key to let the blood sugar into your bodys cells for use as energy.
If you have diabetes, your body either doesnt make enough insulin or cant use the insulin it makes as well as it should. When there isnt enough insulin or cells stop responding to insulin, too much blood sugar stays in your bloodstream. Over time, that can cause serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease.
There isnt a cure yet for diabetes, but losing weight, eating healthy food, and being active can really help. Taking medicine as needed, getting diabetes self-management education and support, and keeping health care appointments can also reduce the impact of diabetes on your life.
- 34.2 million US adults have diabetes, and 1 in 5 of them dont know they have it.
- Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States.
- Diabetes is the No. 1 cause of kidney failure, lower-limb amputations, and adult blindness.
- In the last 20 years, the number of adults diagnosed with diabetes has more than doubled.