Create A Balanced Meal Plan
Cooking your own meals is the easiest way to make nutrient-dense choices.
Come up with a weekly meal plan that includes dishes for every meal. Stock up on all of the groceries youll need and do some of the prep work ahead of time.
You can ease yourself into it, too. Start by planning your lunches for the week. Once youre comfortable with that, you can plan out additional meals.
The Genetic Basis For Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing -cells in the pancreas resulting from the action of environmental factors on genetically predisposed individuals. The increasing incidence over recent decades remains unexplained, but the capacity of identifying infants at highest genetic risk has become an increasing requirement for potential therapeutic intervention trials. Literature searches on T1D and genes were carried out, and key papers since the 1970s were highlighted for inclusion in this review. Early genetic studies identified the most important region for genetic susceptibility to T1Dthe human leukocyte antigen genes on chromosome 6; later shown to contribute approximately half of the genetic determination of T1D. The other half is made up of multiple genes, each having a limited individual impact on genetic susceptibility.Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes And Genetics Average Risks
- If either mother of father has diabetes increases risk of diabetes by 15%
- If both mother and father have diabetes increases risk by 75%
- If non-identical twin has diabetes increases risk by 10%
- If identical twin has diabetes increases risk by 90%
Some other forms of diabetes may be directly inherited, including maturity onset diabetes in the young and diabetes due to mitochondrial DNA mutation.
However, neither type 1 or type 2 diabetes may be entirely genetically determined.
Experts believe that environmental factors act as either initators or accelerators.
Several genes are known as susceptibility genes, meaning that if an individual is carrying this gene they face greater risk of developing diabetes.
Similarly, other genes provide greater immune tolerance for non-diabetics.
How Immunotherapy Could Stop And Prevent Type 1 Diabetes
People with type 1 diabetes need lifelong treatments of daily insulin injections to manage their condition that still leave them at risk of long-term complications. Immunotherapy could one day become an insulin-free alternative to stop, prevent, and potentially cure this chronic disease.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease where the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas are wrongly detected as foreign and destroyed by the immune system.
There is no cure; once initiated, the disease will progress to complete destruction of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, Pierre Vandepapelière, previous CEO of Imcyse, told me. This Belgian company is developing an innovative form of treatment that could change the way type 1 diabetes is treated.
Currently, the standard treatment for the disease consists of monitoring glucose levels and frequent insulin injections to keep healthy blood sugar levels. However, even with the best control measures, patients are still at risk of complications affecting the eyes, kidneys and nerves in the long term. Insulin treatment also carries the risk of inducing episodes of extremely low blood sugar, also known as hypoglycemia, which can be life-threatening.
How Can I Protect My Kids From Developing Type 2 Diabetes
These steps can help reduce your kids’ risk for developing type 2 diabetes and the health problems it can cause:
- Make sure kids eat a healthy diet. Encouraging your kids to eat low-fat, nutrient-rich foods like whole-grain cereals and breads, fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and lean proteins can help prevent excessive weight gain, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
- Limit sugary foods and beverages. Consuming lots of sugar-filled foods and beverages like sodas, juices, and iced teas can lead to excessive weight gain.
- Encourage lots of physical activity.Staying active and limiting the time spent in sedentary activities like watching TV, being online, or playing video or computer games can help reduce the risk of weight gain and help prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. Being active can be as simple as walking the dog or mowing the lawn. Try to do something that gets you and your kids moving every day.
If you think your child may be overweight and at risk for type 2 diabetes, talk to your doctor or a registered dietitian. They can help you learn what your child’s weight goals should be and how to reach them.
Members Of The Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium
Asia-Pacific Network: Eesh Bhatia, Francois Bonnici, Pik To Cheung, Peter Colman, Andrew Cotterill, Jenny Couper, Ric Cutfield, Elizabeth Davis, Tim Davis, Paul Dixon, Kim Donaghue, Paul Drury, Mark Harris, Len Harrison, Tim Jones, Uma Kanga, Alok Kanungo, Betty Kek, Jeremy Krebs, Yann-Jinn Lee, Margaret Lloyd, Amanda Loth, Narinder Mehra, Grant Morahan, C.B. Sanjeevi, Brian Tait, Mike Varney, Jinny Willis, Loke Kah Yin, Goh Siok Ying.
North American Network: Alan Aldrich, Mark Anderson, Christophe Benoist, Noureddine Berka, Patrick Concannon, Mark Daly, Jayne Danska, Larry Dolan, David Donaldson, Alessandro Doria, Janice Dorman, George Eisenbarth, Henry Erlich, Pamela Fain, Rosanna Fiallo-Scharer, Kenneth Gabbay, Daniel Geraghty, Soumitra Ghosh, Steven Gitelman, Nat Goodman, Gregory Goodwin, Carla Greenbaum, William Hagopian, John Hansen, Joel Hirschhorn, Leroy Hood, Kevin Kaiserman, Jean Lawrence, Victoria Magnuson, Jennifer Marks, John Mayberry, Elizabeth Mayer-Davis, Richard McIndoe, Brad McNeney, Eric Mickelson, Antoinette Moran, Gerald Nepom, Janelle Noble, Jill Norris, Tihamer Orban, David Owerbach, Andrew Paterson, Catherine Pihoker, Constantin Polychronakos, Alberto Pugliese, Philip Raskin, Marian Rewers, Henry Rodriquez, Jerry Rotter, Monique Roy, Desmond Schatz, Gary Schoch, Jin-Xiong She, Richard Spielman, Andrea Steck, Kent Taylor, Jay Tischfield, Ellen Toth, Diane Wherrett, Stephen Willi, Darrell Wilson, Lue Ping Zhao.
More Information On Genetics
If you would like to learn more about the genetics of all forms of diabetes, the National Institutes of Health has published The Genetic Landscape of Diabetes. This free online book provides an overview of the current knowledge about the genetics of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as well other less common forms of diabetes. The book is written for health care professionals and for people with diabetes interested in learning more about the disease.
Eating Sugar Gives You Diabetes
Eating lots of sugar is bad for your energy levels and weight, says a column posted on the website Best Health Guide, but what its absolutely worst for, is your risk of diabetes. Meanwhile, a writer for Healthline who has the disease wearily reported hearing a co-worker joke, I just ate so many cupcakes, I got diabetes.
Because monitoring sugar levels plays such an important role in managing diabetes, many people assume that sugar is also its cause. But as an autoimmune disorder, Type 1 diabetes develops as a result of genetic risk and an unclear trigger; its not caused by eating sugar or anything else.
The story for Type 2 diabetes is a bit more complicated. Obesity and inactivity play huge roles in the risk for the disease, but genetics are also a factor, even more so than for Type 1. Many people eat diets laden with fat and sugar but never develop diabetes because their pancreases can produce large amounts of insulin on demand; others are not so lucky. Too much sugar, per se, wont give you diabetes. But it can make you overweight, increasing your risk for Type 2.
Myth No. 4
Is Type 1 Diabetes Genetic Here’s What Experts Say
When it comes to diabetes, genes are only part of the story.
Experts have identified some of the gene mutations that contribute to type 1 diabetes, but there are certainly more waiting to be discovered. But the genes are only part of the story. Most experts believe that specific gene mutations only predispose you to develop type 1 diabetes while additional environmental factors are needed to activate those genes.
“There’s a really strong genetic component but it’s not the only thing going on,” Leann Olansky, MD, an endocrinologist at the Cleveland Clinic tells Health. “There are environmental conditions that trigger the process.”
Here’s what we know about the complicated genetic portrait of type 1 diabetes.
What Leads To Diabetes
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different causes, but there are two factors that are important in both. You inherit a predisposition to the disease, then something in your environment triggers it.
Thats right: genes alone are not enough. One proof of this is identical twins. Identical twins have identical genes. Yet when one twin has type 1 diabetes, the other gets the disease, at most, only half the time. When one twin has type 2 diabetes, the other’s risk is three in four at most.
Testing For Mody Involves:
- Having blood taken for pancreatic antibodies and blood or urine tested for C-peptide .
- Having blood taken for genetic testing. Your doctor/hospital will take the blood from you, but they will send it on to the specialist centre in Exeter for it to be tested, along with details of your diagnosis and treatment.
Is Type 1 Diabetes Hereditary In Families
The gene variations responsible for type 1 diabetes are passed down in families. “The lifetime risk of developing T1DM is significantly increased if one has a family history of type 1 diabetes,” says Dr. Adimoolam. “One study suggests that the risk of developing T1DM with no family history is 0.4%. If there is one parent with T1DM, the risk off their child developing T1DM increases to 3%-4%.”
If your mother or father has type 1 diabetes, your risk of getting it is about 5%, versus only 1% in the general population, says Dr. Olansky.
The Key Features Of Mody Are:
- Being diagnosed with diabetes under the age of 25.
- Having a parent with diabetes, with diabetes in two or more generations.
- Not necessarily needing insulin.
MODY is very rare compared with type 1 and type 2 diabetes experts estimate that only 12% of people with diabetes in the UK have it. But because MODY is so rare, doctors may not be aware of it, so its estimated that about 90% of people with it are mistakenly diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes at first.
Mody: A Genetic Diabetes That Affects People From A Young Age
What is Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young? How is it diagnosed and treated? How does it compare to type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young is a type of diabetes caused by a mutation in one of eleven genes in someones . These mutations affect different organs in the body and ultimately make it difficult to regulate blood glucose levels. One such way is by preventing the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas from making enough insulin. Unlike type 1 and type 2 diabetes, a person can develop MODY by inheriting one copy of a gene mutation.
MODY is passed down genetically from parent to child and is less common than other forms of diabetes. It affects 1-2% of people in the United States who have diabetes and are under the age of 35; however, this number may be higher because 80% of cases of MODY are misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Children have a 50% chance of developing MODY if one of their parents have it. However, mutations can still occur at random and impact a generation in which neither parent carried the mutation.
Key features of MODY:
MODY is commonly diagnosed in late childhood to adulthood typically before age 25 . Neonatal diabetes, also caused by a single gene mutation, is diagnosed in newborns younger than 6 months of age.
MODY can be passed down from an affected parent to a child.
MODY is not insulin dependent people who are affected still produce some insulin.
How is MODY different than type 1 diabetes?
You Can Treat Type 1 Diabetes Without Insulin
There are endless dubious stories about people with Type 1 diabetes who manage, through some dietary trick, to avoid the need for insulin. In 2016, the website Diabetes.co.uk reported on the case of a 9-year-old Hungarian boy who supposedly avoided insulin injections for 24 months by following a paleo diet that consisted only of animal meat, fat, offal and eggs. In 2007, there were reports that Halle Berry had reversed her Type 1 diabetes with a healthy diet. Ive managed to wean myself off insulin, the actress said.
But when you hear of someone with Type 1 who doesnt need insulin, invariably theyve either just been diagnosed or have been misdiagnosed or are confused about which type they have.
People with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes can sometimes come off insulin soon after their blood sugars are brought under control. This is whats known as a honeymoon period, in which patients can keep their symptoms largely in check through diet, weight loss and exercise. In some cases, the honeymoon period can last months or years. But this isnt a reversal of their condition: The patients have just reduced the burden placed on their weakened pancreas. Inevitably, they will end up back on insulin as their immune system continues to attack their pancreas.
Can Type 1 Diabetes Be Prevented
Type 1 diabetes can’t be prevented. Doctors can’t even tell who will get it and who won’t.
No one knows for sure what causes type 1 diabetes, but scientists think it has something to do with genes. But just getting the genes for diabetes isn’t usually enough. In most cases, a child has to be exposed to something else like a virus to get type 1 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes isn’t contagious, so kids and teens can’t catch it from another person or pass it along to friends or family members. And eating too much sugar doesn’t cause type 1 diabetes, either.
There’s no reliable way to predict who will get type 1 diabetes, but blood tests can find early signs of it. These tests aren’t done routinely, however, because doctors don’t have any way to stop a child from developing the disease, even if the tests are positive.
Is Diabetes Inherited From Mother Or Father
Diabetes is a hereditary disease, which means that the child is at high risk of developing diabetes compared to the general population at the given age. Diabetes can be inherited from either mother or father.
The childs risk increases:
- If the father has type 1 diabetes, the risk of the child developing diabetes is 1 in 17.
- If the mother has type 1 diabetes and:
- The child was born before she is 25 years old, then the risk is 1 in 25.
- The child was born after she is 25 years old, the childs risk is 1 in 100.
Even if diabetes run in families, it is possible to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes in children or youth by following a healthy lifestyle.
- If the father has type 2 diabetes, the risk factor is about 30%.
- If the mother has type 2 diabetes, the risk factor is slightly higher.
- If both parents have diabetes, the risk factor increases to about 70%.
Genes associated with type 2 diabetes risk include:
- History of gestational diabetes
Killing Rebel Immune Cells
In type 1 diabetes, cells in the immune system wrongly recognize the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas as foreign and dangerous, said Vandepapelière. Our objective is to interrupt this autoimmune process.
Imcyse is developing an immunotherapy that involves injecting a molecule that makes the system produce a new type of immune cell. These cells will specifically kill those immune cells that destroy the pancreas.
Its Important To Know If Youve Got Mody For The Following Reasons:
- To make sure you get the right treatment and advice for your type of diabetes .
- As there is a 50% chance of a parent passing on MODY to their child, you can consider and discuss the risk to any children you have/plan to have.
- Genetic testing can be offered to other family members.
If you think you might have MODY you should discuss testing with your doctor.
You Can’t Eat Sweet Foods If You Have Diabetes
Avoid doughnuts, toasted pastries, and other bakery sweets, a Health.com column advises people with diabetes and take a pass on melons and bananas, too. Skip sugary foods like sweets and soda, says Everyday Health. Misconceptions about which foods are completely off limits for people with the disease especially sweets are so common that the website the Mighty helpfully suggests 26 snappy comebacks for when others offer uninformed advice.
Granted, eating too many sweets isnt a great idea for someone with diabetes but it isnt good for someone without diabetes, either.
People with Type 1 or Type 2 already pay close attention to their blood sugar levels, monitoring such things as sugar intake, carbohydrate content, total calories, exercise levels and insulin administration. When you do all that, the occasional large dessert is fine. If you take insulin, youll take a bit more to offset the chocolate cake. If you take medication, like metformin, to manage Type 2, a walk around the block might suffice.
It turns out that fat, not sugar, is what really makes blood sugars hard to control for many people with diabetes. In my clinic, when I see a high blood-sugar reading from a patient whose numbers are usually in the normal range, my first question is whether they had pizza or Chinese takeout the night before.
Myth No. 5
Will I Pass On Type 1 Diabetes To My Baby
It is natural for people with type 1 diabetes to worry about the possibility of passing the disease on to their children. Reassuringly, the disease does not develop in a majority of people with genetic risk factors. But that said, your child will still have a greater risk of developing type 1 than the general populationon average, this risk is about fifteen times greater for someone with a relative who has the disease. Besides having a parent with the disease, your childs risk of inheriting type 1 can be impacted by additional factors like:
- Where you live
- How old you were when you developed type 1 diabetes
- The presence of diabetes-related autoantibodies in your body
- Whether one or both parents have the disease
- Your age when the baby is born
- Having certain immune system disorders in addition to type 1
It is important to remember that ones genetic makeup is not the only factor at play. In fact, 80 percent of people with type 1 diabetes have no family history of the disease. Researchers are still trying to understand exactly how genes and environmental factors interact to determine a persons risk of developing type 1 diabetesfor example, certain viruses that target beta cells, causing the bodys autoimmune response to go awry and attack healthy cells. According to ADA, early diet may also play a role in the development of the disease; it is less common in people who were breastfed and in those who began eating solid food at later ages.
Teaming Up With Bacteria
The bacteria in our gut have a strong connection with our immune system. ActoBio, a company based in Belgium, wants to exploit this connection to treat type 1 diabetes. Our product candidates are based on the use of Lactococcus lactis bacteria that are genetically modified to express proteins, peptides, antibodies or human cytokines, Lothar Steidler, CTO of ActoBio, told me.
Our guts are familiar to this bacterium, as its used to produce cheese and buttermilk. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the bacteria are engineered to produce the insulin precursor human proinsulin and a signaling molecule called interleukin 10. Together they signal the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, where immune cells are stored, to restore the tolerance of insulin-producing cells with the goal of slowing down or stopping their destruction.
It is potentially a safe oral treatment that will be given for a limited period of time and could lead to patients who develop type 1 diabetes not needing to use insulin, or delay the need for insulin after diagnosis added Pieter Rottiers, CEO of ActoBio.
The company is now running a phase I/II clinical trial in the US and Europe in people with type 1 diabetes as young as 12 years old. Patients will have to have some remaining capacity for production of insulin, said Rottiers. Results are expected this year.
‘walmart Insulin’ Is Just As Good As The Expensive Kind
The price of the most popular types of insulin has roughly tripled in the past decade, inspiring politicians to explore policy solutions and people with diabetes to search for cheaper options. A vial of Levemir, one of the newer insulins, retails for about $380, and many people need more than one vial per month. In September, Minnesota state showing himself purchasing a vial of insulin at Walmart for $24.88. Theres affordable options out there, he said. A blogger for FDAReview, a project of the libertarian Independent Institute, similarly argued that Americans should Trust Walmarts Insulin to Save Lives.
But the insulins sold at Walmart are not the same as the modern insulins that people with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes rely on. Theyre not worthless, but they arent a feasible option for many people.
Over-the-counter insulin has been around since the 1980s, when scientists first learned to program bacteria to produce human insulin. And while they are far better than the insulins extracted from cow and pig pancreases that they replaced, using them safely requires an incredibly strict diet and exercise regimen.
Myth No. 3
What Are The Odds
The genetic risk of having a child with type 1 diabetes is not entirely understood and fluctuates greatly. If the father has type 1, the child has between a 6% and 8% chance of developing diabetes. If the mother has type 1, the risk can range from 2% to 3%. If both parents have type 1 diabetes, the risk increases to 25%. There are a number of contributing factors to explain the differences. The younger the parent was when diagnosed, being Caucasian, and the child having an early history of certain childhood traumas and infections increases the odds. The older the parent was when the child was born and the longer the mother breast fed decreases the odds. There are also environmental factors to consider such as living in a cold climate and early dietary variables that can impact risk.
The genetic risk associated with type 2 diabetes is also complex. If the father has type 2, the risk factor is about 30%, slightly higher if it is the mother. If both parents have diabetes, the risk factor jumps to about 70%. There are a number of factors that impact the risk, such as obesity, sedentary lifestyles, poor dietary practices, smoking, elevated blood pressure, and a history of gestational diabetes. All increase the risk.