Think Skinny People Dont Get Type 2 Diabetes Think Again
In the last article on diabesity and metabolic syndrome, we discussed the complex relationship between body weight and type 2 diabetes . We learned that although obesity is strongly associated with T2DM, a subset of metabolically healthy obese people have normal blood sugar and insulin sensitivity and dont ever develop diabetes.
In this article were going to talk about the mirror reflection of the MHO: the metabolically unhealthy nonobese . These are lean people with either full-fledged type 2 diabetes or some metabolic dysfunction, such as insulin resistance.
skinny people can and do get T2DM
Perhaps these folks have been overlooked because type 2 diabetes has been historically viewed as a disease of gluttony and sloth, a self-inflicted outcome of eating too much and not exercising enough. But the very existence of the MUN phenotype proves that theres more to T2DM than overeating and a sedentary lifestyle.
Remember that one in three type 2 diabetics are undiagnosed. Its possible that a significant number of these people that are lean. They dont suspect they might have T2DM because theyre under the impression that its not a condition that affects thin people. This is one of the biggest dangers of the myth that only fat people get diabetes.
diabetes is not a disease. Its a symptom.
Social And Psychologic Problems
) are very common among children with diabetes. Up to half of children develop depression, anxiety, or other psychologic problems . Because insulin can cause weight gain, eating disorders Overview of Eating Disorders Eating disorders involve a disturbance of eating or of behavior related to eating, typically including Changes in what or how much people eat Measures people take to prevent food from being… read more are a serious problem in adolescents, who sometimes skip their insulin doses to try to control their weight. Social and psychologic problems can affect children’s ability to adhere to their diet and drug regimens, which means their blood glucose is poorly controlled.
Get Help At The University Of Michigan
If you have type 1 diabetes, there are several ways you can be involved with the care and resources at U-M. To make an appointment with a clinician, reach out to one of the locations listed below. You can take an education class on type 1 led by a group of diabetes and self-care experts from U-Mlearn more about our classes.
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Can A Thin Child Have Type 2 Diabetes
Thin children can develop a form of diabetes that is neither type 1 nor type 2 but can be treated as type 2. Be alert to the term MODY, which stands for Maturity Onset Diabetes of Youth. This form of diabetes is rare and happens when there are genetic changes that cause problems with how insulin is made or used.
How To Tell If You Or Your Child Has Type 1 Diabetes
With Ilana Halperin MD and Elena Christofides MD
Type 1 diabetes is a permanent condition. That means youll likely have to deal with symptoms at least a few times in your life, no matter how diligently you monitor your blood sugar. Were here to empower you with clear answers to all your pressing Qs.
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The Problem With Skinny Fat
Commonly called dad bod or mom bod, skinny fat refers to a slender body type with small amounts of visible fat. Skinny fat people tend to have a type of fat called visceral fat. Visceral fat grows around your organs instead of under your skin, so it isnt visible.
If you have visceral fat, you may not look overweight, but you may have as much fat as someone who is overweight.
The medical term for skinny fat is MONW, which stands for metabolically obese, normal weight, says Kosak. People who are MONW may look healthy but are at risk for conditions like diabetes.
Along with visceral fat, here are some other factors that can lead to diabetes in thin people.
Understanding Type 1 Diabetes
Itâs not the same as âclassicâ or type 2 diabetes, which is often linked to obesity and seen in adults .
If your child has type 1 diabetes, it means their pancreas an organ in the upper-right side of the belly makes little or no insulin. The condition is an autoimmune disorder, which means it happens when the bodyâs defense system attacks and destroys cells that make insulin.
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A Final Thought On Type 2 Diabetes In Children And Teens
Remember that type 2 diabetes and its complications are modifiable in young people, says Perez-Colon. Just because you have a risk factor for diabetes doesnt mean necessarily that you need to develop it or that you will have it uncontrolled. Its up to the child and their family to switch that risk around and implement those healthy habits.
Who Is More Likely To Develop Type 2 Diabetes
You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, type 2 diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older, have a family history of diabetes, or are overweight or obese. Diabetes is more common in people who are African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American, or Pacific Islander.
Physical inactivity and certain health problems such as high blood pressure affect your chances of developing type 2 diabetes. You are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you have prediabetes or had gestational diabetes when you were pregnant. Learn more about risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
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Eating A Healthy Diet
Eating healthily is one of the best ways to get blood sugar levels under control and can also help you to lose weight.
- Eat regular home prepared meals
- Eat 5 portions or more of vegetables and fruit
- Replace unhealthy snacks with natural snacks
- Avoid fried foods and sugary foods
- Pick foods with a low GI
Many processed foods, including packaged sandwiches have higher calorie contents than home prepared versions. Its best to avoid snacks such as crisps, muffins and chocolate. These foods may satisfy your hunger initially but can often make you hungry again soon after.
Having natural snacks such as fruit or carrot sticks are much healthier and may prevent your hunger returning before the next meal.
As youd expect, fried and sugary foods are amongst the worst foods for our health and our weight and should be avoided where possible. Low GI foods are those which take a longer time to get fully digested.
For example whole grain bread has a lower GI than white bread as the body takes longer to digest it.
This means that lower GI foods dont push our blood sugar levels up as severely as high GI foods.
- Read more on low GI foods
Before Type 2 Diabetes Starts
Some children and teens have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes.Traits that are often found in people before they get type 2 diabetes are:
High triglyceride levels
High blood glucose levels
Low HDL cholesterol levels
The risks for heart disease and diabetes increase for those who have hightriglycerides, high blood glucose, low HDL cholesterol, and high bloodpressure and who are overweight.
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Type 1 Diabetes Treatment
To control blood glucose, children with type 1 diabetes take injections of insulin.
When type 1 diabetes is first diagnosed, children are usually hospitalized. Children with type 1 diabetes are given fluids and insulin. They always require insulin because nothing else is effective. Children who do not have DKA at diagnosis typically receive two or more daily injections of insulin. Insulin treatment is usually begun in the hospital so that blood glucose levels can be tested often and doctors can change insulin dosage in response. Less commonly, treatment is started at a regular doctor visit.
Once children are released from the hospital, they must take insulin regularly. Doctors work with children and their family to determine which insulin regimen is best.
There are several types of insulin regimens:
Multiple daily injections regimens
Insulin pump regimens
Premixed insulin regimens
Most children who have type 1 diabetes should be treated with MDI regimens or with insulin pump therapy.
With MDI regimens, a basalbolus insulin regimen is preferred. This regimen involves taking one or two injections of a longer-acting insulin every day and then separate supplemental injections of a short-acting insulin immediately before meals. Each bolus dose can be different depending on how much food the child is going to eat or what the blood glucose level is at that time.
An advantage of the basal-bolus regimen is that it allows for flexibility as to when meals are eaten.
Type 1 Diabetes As Common In Adults As Children But Many Adults Misdiagnosed
- University of Exeter
- Type 1 diabetes is not predominantly a ‘disease of childhood’ as previously believed, but is similarly prevalent in adults, new research shows.
Type 1 diabetes is not predominantly a ‘disease of childhood’ as previously believed, but is similarly prevalent in adults, new research published in the Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology shows.
Research by the University of Exeter Medical School using UK Biobank found that adults are as likely to develop type 1 diabetes as children, with more than 40 per cent of type 1 diabetes cases occurring after the age of 30.
But many of those with type 1 diabetes after the age of 30 are thought to have type 2 diabetes at first, and not initially treated with insulin to control blood sugar levels. Previous published research by the University of Exeter Medical school found that, on average, it took a year for those with type 1 diabetes who had been misdiagnosed with type 2 to be put on insulin.
Among the adults with type 1 diabetes to have been misdiagnosed is Theresa May, the Prime Minister, who was initially told by doctors she had type 2 diabetes and given tablets which did not control her blood sugar.
Type 1 diabetes has been typically viewed as a disease of childhood and adolescence as it accounts for more than 85 per cent of diabetes in under 20s.
The study was funded by the Wellcome Trust and Diabetes UK.
Case study: Helen Philbin
Misdiagnosis led to weight loss and vomiting for Helen
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You Might Have Nerve Pain
The longer you have diabetes, the higher your risk for nerve damage and pain, known as diabetic neuropathy.
Nerve damage can happen in your hands and feet , or in the nerves that control organs in your body .
Symptoms may include:
- numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in the hands or feet
- loss of balance or coordination
- muscle weakness
- bladder problems, such as incomplete bladder emptying
- erectile dysfunction
Schedule regular checkups with the specialists your doctor recommends to make sure youre reducing your chance of complications.
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Symptoms May Be Hard To See
âPatients may have no clue,â says Berhane Seyoum, MD, chief of endocrinology at DMC Harper University Hospital. Thatâs why his team is trying to find an early way to screen for signs of an unhealthy metabolism and diabetes.
But you could start to pee more than normal or get thirsty. If youâre at a healthy weight, your doctor may not think your symptoms are from diabetes. Thatâs why âitâs always good to get a physical once a year to see what your blood sugar looks like,â says Seyoum.
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What To Do If You Think Youre Monw
Working a few small changes into your everyday habits can have a big impact on your health.
- Eat a balanced diet. Visceral fat is very responsive to diet and exercise. Eliminating processed, fried, sugary and fatty foods can help you lose visceral fat.
- Incorporate movement into your day. Aim to get 150 minutes of physical activity per week.
- Reduce your stress levels. Getting your stress levels down can lower your risk of diabetes. Try avoiding stressors, exercising more and practicing mindfulness with yoga or meditation.
- Improve your sleep. Try for 6 to 8 hours of sleep per night. If you have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep, try cutting back on screen time before bed and making sure your bedroom is dark. Dont consume caffeine for 8 hours before bedtime and limit alcohol before you go to sleep.
When Do People First Experience Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes
The majority of people with T1D first experience symptoms in childhood, typically between the ages of 4 and 14. A small number, however, develop symptoms in infancy or toddlerhood.
An even smaller subset of people with type 1 diabetes will be diagnosed as adults, after the age of 20. The onset of type 1 diabetes is slower in adults, so they might experience mild symptoms for a longer period of time before diagnosis than children typically do.
Type 1 diabetes symptoms in children look similar to the symptoms in toddlers and babies, with a few notable differences. Mood swings and irritability, for example, can affect anyone with T1D, but this common symptom might be mistaken for an ordinary temper tantrum in preverbal toddlers, or as colic in younger babies.
Type 1 diabetes symptoms in babies and toddlers include weight loss and stunted growth a condition known as failure to thrive which is rare in adults. Failure to thrive might be the only noticeable symptom of T1D in a baby or toddler, since older children can clue parents in to symptoms such as increased urination or blurred vision.
One important thing we need to point out is that type 1 diabetes is often associated with children, but it happens to adults as well, Dr. Christofides says. Adult-onset, or late-onset type 1 diabetes symptoms look slightly different and can be harder to recognize and diagnose as a result.
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How Is Type 2 Diabetes Managed
Theres no cure for Type 2 diabetes. But you can manage the condition by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and taking medication if needed. Work with your healthcare provider to manage your:
- Blood sugar: A blood glucose meter or continuous glucose monitoring can help you meet your blood sugar target. Your healthcare provider may also recommend regular A1c tests, oral medications , insulin therapy or injectable non-insulin diabetes medications.
- Blood pressure: Lower your blood pressure by not smoking, exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet. Your healthcare provider may recommend blood pressure medication such as beta blockers or ACE inhibitors.
- Cholesterol: Follow a meal plan low in saturated fats, trans fat, salt and sugar. Your healthcare provider may recommendstatins, which are a type of drug to lower cholesterol.
Do Not Miss The Symptoms
Children and adolescents with diabetes usually experience four main symptoms, but many children will only have one or two. In some cases, they may show no symptoms at all.
If a child suddenly becomes more thirsty or tired or urinates more than usual, their parents may not consider diabetes a possibility.
This might also be the case for doctors, since diabetes is less common among very young children. They may attribute the symptoms to other, more common illnesses. For this reason, they may not diagnose diabetes straight away.
It is important to be aware of the possible signs and symptoms of diabetes in children in order to get a diagnosis and treatment plan as soon as possible.
One of the most serious consequences of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes is DKA. The sections below will look at this, and other complications, in more detail.
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Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes:
Any combination of the following factors may put people at a higher risk for type 1 diabetes:
- Self-allergy : The immune system usually protects us from disease, but in the case of type 1 diabetes, the immune system turns against the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin . If you have any type of autoimmune disease, your risk of developing diabetes increases. Doctors can test for diabetes antibodies, specifically one called GAD65. Measuring this antibody early in the disease can help your medical team determine if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
- Genes: People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to have inherited genes putting them at risk. Over 50% of those diagnosed with type 1 diabetes also have a close relative with the disease.
Can Eating Too Much Sugar Cause Type 2 Diabetes
Cardiovascular health conditions, such as having high blood pressure, a low level of HDL cholesterol, a high level of triglycerides in your blood or a history of heart disease or stroke, are also associated with type 2 diabetes. So is having depression or polycystic ovary syndrome.
The influence of family history on whether you will develop diabetes is better established with type 2 than it is with type 1, says Alvarado. If you look at people who have type 2 diabetes, they are more likely to have people in their family that also have diabetes, or have obesity, or other risk factors. But she cautions that its hard to know if that influence is due to genes alone or a shared environment and lifestyle. It could also be that what they are sharing is not a genetic variation. Maybe they are sharing their diet or a lack of access to opportunities for exercise, depending on where they live, says Alvarado.
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