Things To Do If Your Blood Sugar Is Too High
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Blood sugar is a tricky little beast. Yes, you can get a high reading if you throw caution to the wind and eat several slices of cake at a wedding.
The problem is that you can also have a high blood sugar reading if you follow every rule in the type 2 diabetes handbook. That’s because it’s not just food that affects blood sugar. You could have a cold coming on, or stress may have temporarily boosted your blood sugar. The reading could be wrong, and you need to repeat it. Or it could mean that your medicine is no longer working, and it’s time to try a new one.
The point is, it’s the pattern that matters, not a single reading.
Whatever you do, don’t feel bad or guilty if you have a high blood sugar reading. A 2004 study found that blood sugar monitoring often amplifies feelings of being a “success” or “failure” at diabetes, and when readings are consistently high, it can trigger feelings of anxiety or self-blame.
This can cause some people to give up on testing completely. Try not to think of blood sugar monitoring as a “test” administered by a sour-faced teacher lurking in your distant past. Blood sugar monitoring is simply a tool that you can use to fight the disease. Here, six things you should know about how to lower your blood sugar when it’s way too high.
Visual Outcome After Cataract Surgery In Diabetic Patients
One of the main purposes of cataract surgery is to restore vision. The lens of the eye becomes cloudy and cannot focus light on the retina, which is necessary for clear eyesight.
A recent study found that diabetic patients who have had cataract surgery may not experience as much improvement in visual outcome, as those who dont have diabetes.
The finding suggests that the cataract surgery may lead to a longer recovery period. The study suggests that diabetic patients have longer wait times for cataract surgery and may require more follow-up reviews or even re-surgeries to manage any undesired complications.
The researchers in the study have recommended that diabetic patients have their cataract surgery performed sooner, preferably within one year of the diagnosis. The study involved over 2.4 million patients and was published in The Journal of the American Medical Association.
Managing Diabetes During Your Hospital Stay
The way your diabetes is managed at home may be very different from how it is managed in the hospital. One good example is the use of regular insulin given by IV, rather than the other types available. Most healthcare providers, especially in the time immediately surrounding surgery, will not want oral medications or long-acting types of insulin to be given.
Regular insulin works within a short time, allowing the staff to have a much better idea of your glucose level. This allows them to treat elevated levels, or low levels immediately. In some cases, blood glucose testing will be done as frequently as every two hours, with medication coverage provided as needed.
Your glucose level may be maintained in a much narrower window during your hospital stay. This is because studies have shown that the better-controlled blood glucose levels are, the faster the healing. If you are going to have meals during your stay at the hospital you can expect to receive diabetic meals, which are designed specifically by the nutrition staff.
If you are having outpatient surgery or have to report for your surgery that morning, consider bringing along your glucose meter. If the surgery is delayed for any reason, you will be able to test your glucose level as needed and notify staff as appropriate.
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What Causes High Blood Sugar
A variety of things can trigger an increase in blood sugar level in people with diabetes, including:
- missing a dose of your diabetes medicine or taking an incorrect dose
- overtreating an episode of low blood sugar
- taking certain medicines, such as steroids
Occasional episodes of hyperglycaemia can also occur in children and young adults during growth spurts.
Make Some Small Changes
You might try to get more exercise, or limit carbs at your next meal, but don’t go crazy. “One blood sugar that’s high doesn’t indicate a need for major changesthat should only be done on a pattern,” says Rice, such as “continuing highs despite following a doctor’s instructions.” If a pattern continues for two to three days or more, then you might want to let your health-care provider know.
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How Can I Pay For Tests And Diabetes Supplies
Medicareexternal icon, Medicaid, and most private insurance plans pay for the A1C test and fasting blood sugar test as well as some diabetes supplies. Check your plan or ask your health care team for help finding low-cost or free supplies, and see How to Save Money on Diabetes Care for more resources.
Transitioning From Iv To Sc Insulin
Post-operatively, glycemic control in critically ill patients is managed with a continuous insulin infusion. When ICU patients are ready to be transferred to the general medical floors, appropriate transition orders from an IV insulin to scheduled SC insulin are needed to prevent rebound hyperglycemia.66 This is imperative in patients with type 1 diabetes since stopping or delaying insulin for only a few hours can result in diabetic ketoacidosis.
Calculation of SC insulin dose in those who have been on an IV insulin infusion is done by determining the TDD of insulin based on the patient’s insulin infusion over the last 8 hours. Seventy percent of this total is administered as basal insulin. Thirty percent is added as prandial insulin when the patient is tolerating a normal diet.67 For diabetic patients on insulin therapy before admission, surgical ward insulin dose is based on home regimen.63,66 Reducing the patient’s home TDD of insulin by 20-25%, provides the starting daily basal insulin dose for the patient while NPO or with limited oral intake. To prevent rebound hyperglycemia, basal insulin is given 2 hours before discontinuation of the IV insulin infusion. Patients without a history of diabetes requiring insulin infusion at low doses , can be transitioned to the surgical floor without basal insulin. Continued monitoring is necessary and correctional insulin may be needed.25
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Types Of High Blood Sugar
There are two different main types of high blood sugar or hypoglycemia. Fasting hyperglycemia is measured when the patient has not eaten for at least eight hours. Patients with a blood glucose level higher than 130 milligrams per deciliter are considered to have fasting hyperglycemia. Postprandial hyperglycemia, or reactive hyperglycemia, occurs after eating. In patients with postprandial hyperglycemia, the liver does not stop producing sugar as it normally would after a meal, and it stores the extra sugar. A blood glucose level over 180 mg/dL, taken one to two hours after eating, is considered reactive hyperglycemia.
Stick To Your Medication And Insulin Regimen
Skipping a dose of medication or insulin can be harmful to your body and increase your blood sugar levels.
Its important to stick to your treatment plan and follow your doctors instructions for taking your medication.
Healthful lifestyle habits can help people manage their blood sugar levels over the long term, such as eating a balanced diet, getting regular exercise, staying hydrated, and getting good sleep.
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Preparing For Surgery With Diabetes
Although diabetes awareness is growing, not all providers have frequent exposure to diabetes technology, such as continuous glucose monitors and insulin pumps, along with the specific protocols that need to be taken into account.
Im continuously educating others about T1D even in the case of surgery, said Peterson. We cant assume that providers know whats best for us as individuals.
Dr. Michelle Grua, an anesthesia provider at Valley Childrens in Fresno, California, with 28 years of adult and pediatric experience, said that people with diabetes should advocate for the use of their own technology during their hospital stay. This can happen by being proactive and educating the anesthesia provider about your management, she said. When using an insulin pump, removing it will stop the delivery of your basal insulin and increase your risk of diabetic ketoacidosis if you’re not started on an IV insulin drip or receive a basal insulin injection.
Grua added that while anesthesia providers are very careful in measuring blood sugars throughout the phases of surgery, you should not hesitate to ask questions.
Heres a few to get started:
What Else Can I Do To Help Manage My Blood Sugar Levels
Eating a healthy diet with plenty of fruit and vegetables, maintaining a healthy weight, and getting regular physical activity can all help. Other tips include:
- Keep track of your blood sugar levels to see what makes them go up or down.
- Eat at regular times, and dont skip meals.
- Choose foods lower in calories, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and salt.
- Track your food, drink, and physical activity.
- Drink water instead of juice or soda.
- Limit alcoholic drinks.
- For a sweet treat, choose fruit.
- Control your food portions .
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Patients Managed With Diet Alone
People whose diabetes is well controlled by a regimen of dietary modification and physical activity may require no special preoperative intervention for diabetes. Fasting blood glucose should be measured on the morning of surgery, and intraoperative blood glucose monitoring is desirable if the surgical procedure is lengthy . If surgery is minor, no specific therapy is required. If surgery is major or if diabetes is poorly controlled , an intravenous infusion of insulin and dextrose should be considered , and hourly intraoperative glucose monitoring is recommended.
Direct Catabolic Effects Of Stress Hormones
The neuroendocrine response to the stress of general anesthesia and surgery leads to activation of potent counterregulatory hormones. The catecholamines stimulate gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, inhibit glucose utilization by peripheral tissues, and inhibit insulin secretion. Activation of phosphoproteins by cAMP-dependent protein kinases accounts for the stimulatory effects of catecholamines on liver and muscle glycogen breakdown, whereas phosphorylation of glycogen synthase accounts for the decreased glycogen synthesis.
These effects predispose to severe hyperglycemia, which is further exacerbated by the stimulatory effect of epinephrine and norepinephrine on glucagon secretion. Other catabolic effects of catecholamines include stimulation of lipolysis and ketogenesis. Epinephrine increases adipocyte cAMP levels, leading to phosphorylation and activation of hormone-sensitive lipase. The activated hormone-sensitive lipase promotes lipolysis and release of free fatty acids into the circulation.
Clearly, the combination of relative hypoinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and excessive catabolism from the action of counterregulatory hormones is a serious threat to glucose homeostasis in all patients with diabetes, particularly those whose preoperative metabolic control is less than perfect. The logical conclusion is that insulin therapy will be needed perioperatively in the majority of patients with diabetes undergoing surgery.
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Research Article Effect Of Perioperative Control Of Blood Glucose Level On Patients Outcome After Anesthesia For Cardiac Surgery
Abstract Blood glucose control is an important factor in improving outcome of diabetic patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Is to estimate the relation between blood glucose control and perioperative outcomes in these patients. One hundred diabetic patients undergoing cardiac surgery, were divided equally into group I in whom no tight glycemic control was done and group II in which tight glycemic control was done. Patients in the study group received intra-operatively an infusion of rapidly acting insulin according to a modified protocol to keep blood glucose level between 80 and 110 mg/dl and continued in the ICU until complete recovery from anesthesia. Patients in the control group followed the same protocol of insulin infusion only if their peri-operative blood glucose level exceeded 180 mg/dl. There was a rise of blood glucose level in the control group patients till the end of operations . Mean blood glucose level before CPB was comparable in the two groups, but was significantly different after that until extubation. We reported three cases of delayed recovery in the control group compared to one case in the study group. We also recorded four cases of cardiac problems in group I compared to one case in group II . There was statistically significant difference between groups regarding renal, neurological and surgical post-operative complications. Tight glycemic control is recommended for better patients outcome after cardiac anesthesia.Continue reading > >
Blood Sugar Levels For Cataract Surgery
A study was conducted where the correlation between blood sugar levels and cataract surgery success rates was examined. The study found that higher blood sugar levels led to a higher risk of complications.
The optimal blood glucose level before surgery is unknown, and there are no studies supporting any level. In general, it is known that perioperative hyperglycaemia increase postoperative complications for a variety of surgeries other than cataracts.
A person undergoing a cataract surgery under topical or regional anaesthesia is generally awake, so they can take their normal antidiabetic medication immediately after surgery. In addition, patients can avoid hypo or hyperglycemia complications by early recognition of symptoms and signs.
Patients should be advised to check their blood sugar levels before surgery and to keep them within the normal range.
Diabetes and other complications are often treated with insulin. The goal of pre-surgery preparation is to achieve and maintain glycemic control and normal blood glucose levels.
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Perioperative Risks And Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus
It is important in assessing risk of complications in patients with diabetes undergoing surgery to consider the specific type of surgery and anaesthetic technique. There is evidence for higher risk in those with diabetes undergoing surgery and, when such evidence is lacking, it may in part be testament to the relative safety of modern surgery and anaesthesia.
However, the following risks and observations are worth considering in patients with diabetes undergoing surgery:
Do Diabetics Take Longer To Heal After Cataract Surgery
Diabetics have been found to take the same time to heal after cataract surgery as the non-diabetic people provided the blood sugar levels before, during and after cataract surgery remain normal.
A recent study has shown that patients with diabetes seem to have satisfactory healing process when undergoing cataract surgery.
Some of the patients experience delayed healing after cataract surgery. However, it is possible that some of these patients do not follow the post-surgery instructions.
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Metabolic Consequences Of Surgical Stress And Anesthesia
During the fasting state, normal subjects maintain plasma glucose levels between 60-100 mg/dl . The stress of surgery and anesthesia alters the finely regulated balance between hepatic glucose production and glucose utilization in peripheral tissues. An increase in the secretion of counterregulatory hormones occurs, causing excessive release of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 .10 Cortisol increases hepatic glucose production, stimulates protein catabolism and promotes gluconeogenesis, resulting in elevated blood glucose levels.11 Surging catecholamines increase glucagon secretion and inhibit insulin release by pancreatic -cells.4 Additionally, the increase in stress hormones leads to enhanced lipolysis and high free fatty acid concentrations. Increased FFAs have been shown to inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake12 and limit the intracellular signaling cascade in skeletal muscle responsible for glucose transport activity.13 Evidence also suggests that TNF- interferes with the synthesis and/or translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 reducing glucose uptake in peripheral tissues.14 These processes result in an altered state of insulin action, leading to a relative state of insulin resistance which is most pronounced on the first postoperative day and may persist for 9-21 days following surgery.15
The Surgical Stress Response
What Should My Blood Sugar Level Be
When you’re first diagnosed with diabetes, your diabetes care team will usually tell you what your blood sugar level is and what you should aim to get it down to.
You may be advised to use a testing device to monitor your blood sugar level regularly at home.
Or you may have an appointment with a nurse or doctor every few months to see what your average blood sugar level is. This is known as your HbA1c level.
Target blood sugar levels differ for everyone, but generally speaking:
- if you monitor yourself at home with a self-testing kit a normal target is 4 to 7mmol/l before eating and under 8.5 to 9mmol/l 2 hours after a meal
- if your HbA1c level is tested every few months a normal HbA1c target is below 48mmol/mol
The Diabetes UK website has more about blood sugar levels and testing.
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Hyperglycemia A Significant Risk Factor Following Leg Surgery
- University of Missouri-Columbia
- High blood sugar, also known as hyperglycemia, occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin to turn blood glucose into energy. Although high blood sugar usually only affects diabetics, hyperglycemia has been associated with poorer outcomes for patients undergoing surgical procedures.
High blood sugar, also known as hyperglycemia, occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin to turn blood glucose into energy. Although high blood sugar usually only affects diabetics, hyperglycemia has been associated with poorer outcomes for patients undergoing surgical procedures. A recent study by University of Missouri School of Medicine researchers found that following surgery for artery disease of the legs, hyperglycemia can cause complications, increased hospitalizations and mortality for all patients — even those who are not diabetic.
“Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, is a common circulatory problem caused by plaque build-up inside the arteries of the legs,” said Todd Vogel, M.D., associate professor and chief of the Division of Vascular Surgery at the MU School of Medicine, and lead author of the study. “This build-up blocks blood flow to the lower extremities, and usually requires surgical intervention. Patients with PAD often have additional health concerns such as diabetes. Our study looked at how common hyperglycemia is following surgery for PAD and how it affects post-surgical outcomes.”