Blood Sugar Levels For Adults With Diabetes
Each time you test your blood sugar, log it in a notebook or online tool or with an app. Note the date, time, results, and any recent activities: What medication and dosage you took What you ate How much and what kind of exercise you were doing That will help you and your doctor see how your treatment is working. Well-managed diabetes can delay or prevent complications that affect your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes doubles your risk for heart disease and stroke, too. Fortunately, controlling your blood sugar will also make these problems less likely. Tight blood sugar control, however, means a greater chance of low blood sugar levels, so your doctor may suggest higher targets.Continue reading > >
What Is A Typical Blood Sugar Level
In Canada, blood sugar levels are measured in mmol/L . A person who doesnt have diabetes usually has a blood sugar level somewhere between 3.5 mmol/L and 7.8 mmol/L, depending on when they last ate.
Diabetes is diagnosed when someones blood sugar is greater than 11 mmol/L.
People with type 1 diabetes have a target range for their blood sugar level. The range is determined with their health care team. Typically, a target range will be between:
- 6 to 10 mmol/L for children younger than 6 years
- 4 to 10 mmol/L for children 6 to 12 years old
- 4 to 7 mmol/L for teenagers
Having a target doesnt mean blood sugar will always be within that rangelows and highs are part of living with type 1 diabetes. They are nearly impossible to avoid.
Understand Nutrition And Adjust Your Diet
What you choose to eat and drink can have a major impact on not only your waistline, mood, and well-being, but also on your blood sugar levels.
All macronutrients can affect the blood sugar to some degree so developing a good understanding of how they affect your blood sugar will enable you to be proactive and prevent blood sugar swings.
Carbohydrates have the greatest impact on your blood sugar, which is why many people with diabetes can benefit from following a low- to medium-carb diet . The fewer carbs you eat, the less insulin you need to take, which makes diabetes management easier.
However, you dont have to follow a low-carb diet if it doesnt work for you physically or mentally. As I wrote in my post about which diet is best for people with diabetes, it is very possible to have great blood sugar control on a medium carb diet, as long as you experiment, take notes, and learn to take the right amounts of insulin for the carbs you are eating.
It is very important to realize that we all react differently to carbs so you have to find the diet and foods that are right for you.
As an example, people react very differently to carbs like oats or sweet potato. Some people can eat oats with only a small increase in blood sugar while others see a quick spike. By simply knowing this, people struggling with a certain type of carb can choose to reduce their consumption or cut it out of their diet altogether.
Protein & fats
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Factors That Increase Your Risk Of Prediabetes
While mainstream media often depicts type 2 diabetes as the result of being overweight, not exercising, and eating unhealthy food, it is significantly more complex.
There are actually two pathways that lead to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.
The first is basic insulin resistance, which means your body needs more and more insulin in order to maintain healthy blood sugar levels. At a certain point, the pancreas cant keep up with the demand, and blood sugars begin to rise.
The second is a genetic disposition that results in the gradual dysfunction and destruction of your pancreas beta-cells. Beta-cells play the leading role in insulin production, and many people with type 2 diabetes struggle to actually produce normal amounts of insulin.
Determining which group you are in isnt easy, or even possible for the average patient.
For patients in this second group, reversing diabetes isnt likely possible, but that doesnt mean you cant take steps towards improving your health isnt worthwhile.
The most important factors that increase your risk of prediabetes are:
Target Blood Sugar Levels For People With Diabetes
People with diabetes have difficulty creating or using enough insulin, which is the hormone that helps convert glucose into energy. Although there is no universal blood sugar chart for everyone with diabetes, clinical organizations like the ADA and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists offer guidelines on target blood sugar levels as a starting point.
Healthcare providers typically tailor normal blood sugar target ranges to an individual diabetes care plan. This includes considering your:
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When To See A Healthcare Provider
Getting professional medical advice from a healthcare provider like an endocrinologist is the best way to learn more about whether your blood sugar levels are where they should be. Not getting proper treatment for low or high blood sugar levels can be serious and lead to health complications, especially for those with diabetes. Diabetes complications include nerve damage, kidney disease, heart disease, or heart attacks.
If you see a healthcare provider about your blood sugar levels, be prepared to answer questions about risk factors like what you eat, how much you exercise, and about your family history. Some healthcare providers may want to take a blood sample to test your blood sugar levels. They may also order an A1C test, which is a blood test that measures blood sugar levels over several months. You may have to fast eight hours beforehand to get accurate test results, so its always a good idea to check before your appointment.
If your blood sugar level goes above 250 mg/dL, you should go to the ER for immediate medical attention, says Dr. Tarugu. Emergency rooms are equipped to handle high blood sugar levels and can administer treatments like insulin therapy and fluid or electrolyte replacement.
Low Blood Sugar Symptoms
Hypoglycemia happens when blood glucose levels drop too low. Low blood sugar can be caused by many things including the two different types of diabetes, certain medications, alcohol, endocrine disorders, eating disorders, pregnancy , and disorders of the liver, kidneys, or heart.
Here are some of the most common symptoms that someone with low blood sugar might experience:
- Tingling lips
If your blood sugar is low you might start to feel some of the first signs of hypoglycemia like dizziness, lightheadedness, or sweating. The only way to know for sure if your blood sugar is low is to test it with a glucose meter or other glucose monitoring device.
If you dont have access to these tools and start to feel the symptoms of low blood sugar, consume 15 grams of carbs or take a quick dissolve glucose tablet to raise your blood sugar levels and avoid further symptoms, according to the American Diabetes Association . Once your blood sugar is back in its target range, you can have a snack or meal to make sure it doesnt drop again.
Here are some other lifestyle and medicinal treatments that can help treat hypoglycemia:
- Eat a healthy diet full of whole foods that are minimally processed.
- Take prediabetes or diabetes medications as recommended by your healthcare provider.
- Use a glucagon kit in emergencies. Glucagon is a hormone that raises blood sugar levels quickly.
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Keto Diet And Exercise
Starting on a ketogenic diet can influence your exercise performance in multiple ways, both positive and negative. During the first 1-2 weeks , you will most likely see a decrease in energy and athletic performance across the board while your body adjusts to the new diet. This is perfectly normal and should NOT be a cause for concern or make you abandon the diet.
When your body has adapted to the ketogenic diet, you will most likely experience that cardio returns to its previous level of difficulty, but strength training may or may not be harder.
Target Blood Sugar Ranges For Pregnant People With Diabetes
Blood sugar targets during pregnancy are lower due to hormonal influences. The ADA, AACE, and Joslin Diabetes Center have slightly different guidelines for target blood sugar levels during pregnancy. In general, pregnant women with diabetes will want to follow individual guidelines provided by their endocrinologist.
The ADA recommends maintaining blood sugar levels of 95-140 mg/dL for pregnant women. However, some providers recommend an even tighter goal of blood glucose levels below 89 mg/dL before a meal and below 120 mg/dL after a meal.
To keep close tabs on levels, most diabetes specialists recommend that women with diabetes during pregnancy check their blood sugar:
- First thing in the morning
- Before all meals
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Postprandial Blood Glucose For People Without Diabetes
Normal blood sugar levels after eating for non diabetics are less than 140 mg/dl. In the same way as it is with fasting levels, any number that is considerably in excess of this one are also an indicator of risk of developing diabetes and having other serious health risks.
Theres also another measurement of blood sugar levels called the HbA1c test. It is different from other measurements in that it doesnt measure blood glucose levels directly. Instead, its a measure of how the highs or lows of your blood glucose levels tend to be over a two to three month period.
While this test is not given the same importance as postprandial or fasting blood glucose tests, a non-diabetic persons HbA1c results should be less than 6%.
How Does Junk Food Affect Blood Sugar Of Your Child
The normal blood sugar of non-diabetic children may vary according to the condition since junk food contains a lot of calories and fats so it can raise the blood sugar of your child. Moreover, it can also increase cholesterol levels of your child.
So if your child is overeating junk and fast food, you should stop him/her from doing so. Regular intake of junk food can also make your child obese. So at any cost.
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What Is Low Blood Sugar
Hypoglycaemia is a condition wherein blood sugar levels are too low. This condition affects a number of diabetic people when their bodies do not have enough glucose to use as energy. Hypoglycaemia is commonly the result of taking too much of the medication/s prescribed to treat diabetes, eating less than expected, exercising more than normal or skipping meals.
Some of the symptoms of hypoglycaemia include:
- A pale face
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What Does This Tell You How High Can A Non
This study clearly shows that even non diabetics do show fluctuating high blood sugar levels when they eat. If you take it one step further and would like to know how high can a non-diabetic blood sugar go, that study gives you an answer right there.
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In that cohort of healthy non diabetic individuals, their blood sugars were hitting a high of 168mg/dl .
In answering the question of how high can a non diabetics blood sugar go, it will vary between individuals. 168mg/dl was the peak blood sugar level in those non-diabetics in the study.
Dont forget though that these were young men and women with an average age of 27 years.
In real life as we know it though, how high your blood sugar will go will depend on your metabolic competence and of course, the type of foods you eat.
In those non diabetic individuals in the study, they also found that breakfast was the worst culprit of the meals.
So, dont be fooled into thinking your blood glucose levels are always normal after a meal just because you dont have a diagnosis of diabetes. A lot of normal non diabetic people do swing their blood glucose levels.
The nearer you are to the diabetes door, the higher your blood glucose excursions when you eat.
Adherence Can Be A Problem
If you have tried keto , even for a day, you can probably resonate with this. You hang in through the first few hours. Maybe through the first day. Maybe even day two or three. Maybe its been three months. It really doesnt matter it is inevitable that eventually, the cravings startand they are STRONG.
Oh, I can have some carbs now, it wont matter much, you justify to yourself. You cave.
The results are like the pop-up ads on your Internet browser. Congratulations! Youve just restarted the keto adaptation process. Anything you previously did is now for naught. Thanks! *browser closed automatically*
Granted, the longer youve been keto, the easier the re-adaptation process, but during that initial transition, it is IMPERATIVE that one maintains the correct macronutrient split or the adaptation will not occur.
Since that process is neither glamorous nor comfortable, not many can push through with near perfect consistency, myself included.
As you can hear, I found keto to be rough going but, again, your experience may be different.
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Why Your A1c Matters
In a nutshell: your A1c is one of the clearest indicators of your risk for developing diabetes complications like neuropathy , retinopathy , nephropathy , and severe infection in any part of your body that requires healing.
For instance, a small cut on your toe could become infected due to high blood sugars, struggle to heal, and become severe enough that the infection could lead to an amputation.
The general guidelines from the American Diabetes Association recommend an A1c at or below 7.0 percent for the best prevention of diabetes complications. Your risk of developing a diabetes complication continues to drop as your A1c drops closer to 6 percent.
Some people with diabetes aim for A1c levels in the 5s and lower especially those who follow strict low-carb diets like the ketogenic diet and the Bernstein diet. However, this hasnt been proven in research as especially necessary, nor is it reasonably achievable for the larger population of people with diabetes.
Its also important to remember that your blood sugar levels and your A1c are just information that tells you whether your body needs more or less of factors like insulin, other diabetes medications, changes in your nutrition, and changes in your exercise.
If you dont like the number youre seeing on your glucose meter or your A1c results, use that number as motivation to make changes in how you safely manage your diabetes in order to get different results.
You Have Access To More Energy For Cardio
Your body stores a lot more energy as fat than it does as glycogen . A keto diet allows you to tap into that reservoir of stored fat energy more easily.
This is why you sometimes hear about endurance athletes who have successfully switched to keto and continued to perform at a high level because they no longer hit the metaphorical wall. They have access to a gigantic reservoir of fuel that was previously more difficult and took longer to access
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What Are Abnormal Glucose Levels And Why Do They Matter
Why is it unhealthy for glucose levels to be too high or too low ?
Hyperglycemia refers to elevated blood glucose levels. This usually occurs because the body does not appropriately remove glucose from the blood this can happen due to many complex reasons. Elevated glucose levels can damage blood vessels and nerves over time this can then lead to problems in the eyes, kidneys, and heart, as well as numbness in the hands and feet. Very high levels can lead to coma and even death in some cases. People with fasting glucose levels higher than 100 mg/dl have impaired glucose tolerance and should speak with their healthcare provider.
Some people may think that to avoid all these issues, they should just keep their blood glucose levels as low as possible. If too high is bad, then low must be good, right? Not exactly. When glucose gets too low, its called hypoglycemia. The threshold for hypoglycemia is typically thought to be when glucose falls below 70 mg/dl. When this happens, the body may release epinephrine , the fight or flight hormone, which can lead to a fast heart rate, sweating, anxiety, blurry vision, and confusion, but also helps the body mobilize glucose into the blood. If blood glucose levels stay too low for too long, it can cause seizures, coma, and in very rare instances, death.