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What Are The 4 Types Of Diabetes

When To Contact A Medical Professional

4 types of Diabetes
  • Chest pain or pressure, shortness of breath, or other signs of angina
  • Loss of consciousness

Also call your provider if you have:

  • Blood sugar levels that are higher than the goals you and your provider have set
  • Numbness, tingling, or pain in your feet or legs
  • Problems with your eyesight
  • Sores or infections on your feet
  • Frequent feelings of depression or anxiety
  • Symptoms that your blood sugar is getting too low
  • Symptoms that your blood sugar is too high
  • Blood sugar readings that are below 70 mg/dL

You can treat early signs of hypoglycemia at home by drinking orange juice, eating sugar or candy, or by taking glucose tablets. If signs of hypoglycemia continue or your blood glucose level stays below 60 mg/dL , go to the emergency room.

What Is Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus, also called diabetes, is a term for several conditions involving how your body turns food into energy.

When you eat a carbohydrate, your body turns it into a sugar called glucose and sends that to your bloodstream. Your pancreas releases insulin, a hormone that helps move glucose from your blood into your cells, which use it for energy.

When you have diabetes and donât get treatment, your body doesnât use insulin like it should. Too much glucose stays in your blood, a condition usually called high blood sugar. This can cause health problems that may be serious or even life-threatening.

Thereâs no cure for diabetes. But with treatment and lifestyle changes, you can live a long, healthy life.

Diabetes comes in different forms, depending on the cause.

What Does It Mean If Test Results Show I Have Protein In My Urine

This means your kidneys are allowing protein to be filtered through and now appear in your urine. This condition is called proteinuria. The continued presence of protein in your urine is a sign of kidney damage.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Theres much you can do to prevent the development of diabetes . However, if you or your child or adolescent develop symptoms of diabetes, see your healthcare provider. The earlier diabetes is diagnosed, the sooner steps can be taken to treat and control it. The better you are able to control your blood sugar level, the more likely you are to live a long, healthy life.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 03/28/2021.


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What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes

Symptoms of diabetes include:

Type 1 diabetes symptoms: Symptoms can develop quickly over a few weeks or months. Symptoms begin when youre young as a child, teen or young adult. Additional symptoms include nausea, vomiting or stomach pains and yeast infections or urinary tract infections.

Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes symptoms: You may not have any symptoms at all or may not notice them since they develop slowly over several years. Symptoms usually begin to develop when youre an adult, but prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes is on the rise in all age groups.

Gestational diabetes: You typically will not notice symptoms. Your obstetrician will test you for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks of your pregnancy.

Does Eating Sugary Foods Cause Diabetes

10 tips for writing about diabetes

Sugar itself doesn’t directly cause diabetes. Eating foods high in sugar content can lead to weight gain, which is a risk factor for developing diabetes. Eating more sugar than recommended American Heart Association recommends no more than six teaspoons a day for women and nine teaspoons for men leads to all kinds of health harms in addition to weight gain.

These health harms are all risk factors for the development of diabetes or can worsen complications. Weight gain can:

  • Raise blood pressure, cholesterol and trigelyceride levels.
  • Increase your risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Cause fat buildup in your liver.
  • Cause tooth decay.

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Are You Experiencing The Signs And Symptoms Of Di

Diabetes insipidus can affect anyone of any age. Age is a risk factor for development, but the genetic variations that create the disease can be present from birth. The biggest risks of DI are becoming too dehydrated and having excessive urination that interrupts daily living activities. Children may also experience pain, diarrhea, and vomiting when DI is present.

Some people can manage their diabetes insipidus symptoms on their own just by making sure there are enough fluids around. They may pack a backpack full of water bottles, be near convenience stores, or fill large containers with tap water in case of an emergency. Others can control their DI symptoms through hormone replacements or other medications. A lucky few will have their symptoms resolve.

Use the information here to ask questions about diabetes insipidus if you see the signs and symptoms of it at your next medical appointment. Do not self-diagnose. This will just create more stress and anxiety, which can enhance the symptoms. Keep fluid intakes at healthy levels and follow any treatment plan as instructed and diabetes insipidus can become one more challenge that has been defeated.

New Type 4 Diabetes Not Linked To Obesity

Original article written by Bradley J. Fikes for The San Diego Union Tribune on November 18, 2015.

A new type of diabetes thats not associated with insulin deficiency or obesity has been discovered in mice.

In a study published Wednesday, researchers led by Salk Institute scientists found that in a mouse model of the disease regarded as predictive of human diabetes, some develop an unusual type that affects old, lean mice.

This disease is caused by overactivity of a certain kind of immune system cell. The researchers call this new form Type 4 diabetes.

The study was published in the journal Nature. Go to for the study.

If the study is confirmed in people a big if the public health implications would be profound. Diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney and heart disease, and poor blood circulation that can lead to amputation. Diabetes is usually associated with obesity, and a form that is not may escape detection because doctors arent looking for it.

The study was led by the Salks Ronald Evans and Ye Zheng. Evans said its possible that millions of Americans have this type of diabetes.

Oftentimes people think that if theyre lean, theyre protected from diabetes, and most physicians would think that, Evans said.

The researchers envision a potential treatment by developing an antibody drug to reduce levels of these overactive immune cells. That will take at least a few years, Evans said.

But even with the many drugs on the market, more are needed.

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In Addition To Type 1 Type 2 And Gestational Diabetes There Are A Range Of Other Types Of Diabetes Which Are Just As Important

About 2% of people have these other types of diabetes. These include different types of monogenic diabetes, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, and diabetes caused by rare syndromes. Certain medications such as steroids and antipsychotics could lead to other types of diabetes, as well as surgery or hormonal imbalances.

Unfortunately, many of these people are misdiagnosed leading to delays in getting the right treatment. Were proud of the research we have supported to ensure better diagnosis and treatments for all types of diabetes, and its taught us a lot about the condition. Get more information on other types of diabetes:

When Should I Call My Doctor

Diabetes 4, Type one and type two pathophysiology

If you havent been diagnosed with diabetes, you should see your healthcare provider if you have any symptoms of diabetes. If you already have been diagnosed with diabetes, you should contact your provider if your blood glucose levels are outside of your target range, if current symptoms worsen or if you develop any new symptoms.

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What Is The Healthiest Sugar For Diabetics

If you have diabetes, it is best to avoid all forms of sugar when possible. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and even lactose can all raise blood sugar levels which cause unhealthy blood sugar spikes. However, a study from 1985 published in the journal Nutrition Research, found that one sugar is less damaging to diabetics.

In the study, researchers compared the effects of various sugars on the blood sugar levels of diabetics. The study tested glucose, fructose, lactose, and sucrose. The researchers found that lactose increased blood sugar levels the least. This study suggests that lactose may be the safest form of sugar for diabetics.

Conditions Linked With Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, meaning that the bodys immune system mistakes its own cells for invading pathogens that need to be destroyed.

People with type 1 diabetes tend to have a higher risk of having other autoimmune diseases than the rest of the population.

Other autoimmune diseases include:

  • Autoimmune thyroid disease

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What Should My Blood Glucose Level Be

Ask your healthcare team what your blood glucose level should be. They may have a specific target range for you. In general, though, most people try to keep their blood glucose levels at these targets:

  • Before a meal: between 80 and 130 mg/dL.
  • About two hours after the start of a meal: less than 180 mg/dL.

Central Diabetes Insipidus Is The Most Common Form

How Much Types Of Diabetes Are There

Central diabetes insipidus is the most common form of DI because it occurs in all population demographics. There are genetic versions of this disease and it can be caused by an injury as well. To some extent, every person on the planet is at some level of risk of developing this form of DI every day.

How is it caused? The genetic version of central diabetes insipidus is caused by a direct transfer of a faulty gene from parent to child. It is usually from the father, but can also come from the mother or both parents. The signs and symptoms of this disease can be present at birth.

The most common reason for this version DI to occur, however, is through surgery. 1 in 5 people who have a surgery, especially near the pituitary gland, will develop this disease. An injury, inflammation, a tumor, or even an illness like tuberculosis or meningitis can also cause diabetes insipidus to develop.

What happens with this version of the disease is the hypothalamus doesnt tell the pituitary gland to make enough of the hormone that is needed. This means that the kidneys always think that the fluids need to be taken out of the blood stream so that it can be converted to urine and then expelled. In return, people with central diabetes insipidus feel consistently thirsty because their kidneys are taking out too much water.

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What Are The Different Types Of Diabetes

The types of diabetes are:

  • Type 1 diabetes: This type is an autoimmune disease, meaning your body attacks itself. In this case, the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas are destroyed. Up to 10% of people who have diabetes have Type 1. Its usually diagnosed in children and young adults . It was once better known as juvenile diabetes. People with Type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day. This is why it is also called insulin-dependent diabetes.
  • Type 2 diabetes: With this type, your body either doesnt make enough insulin or your bodys cells dont respond normally to the insulin. This is the most common type of diabetes. Up to 95% of people with diabetes have Type 2. It usually occurs in middle-aged and older people. Other common names for Type 2 include adult-onset diabetes and insulin-resistant diabetes. Your parents or grandparents may have called it having a touch of sugar.
  • Prediabetes: This type is the stage before Type 2 diabetes. Your blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be officially diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes: This type develops in some women during their pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after pregnancy. However, if you have gestational diabetes you’re at higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later on in life.

Less common types of diabetes include:

Diabetes insipidus is a distinct rare condition that causes your kidneys to produce a large amount of urine.

How Does Diabetes Affect Your Heart Eyes Feet Nerves And Kidneys

Blood vessels are located throughout our bodys tissues and organs. They surround our bodys cells, providing a transfer of oxygen, nutrients and other substances, using blood as the exchange vehicle. In simple terms, diabetes doesnt allow glucose to get into cells and it damages blood vessels in/near these organs and those that nourish nerves. If organs, nerves and tissues cant get the essentials they need to properly function, they can begin to fail.Proper function means that your hearts blood vessels, including arteries, are not damaged . In your kidneys, this means that waste products can be filtered out of your blood. In your eyes, this means that the blood vessels in your retina remain intact. In your feet and nerves, this means that nerves are nourished and that theres blood flow to your feet. Diabetes causes damage that prevents proper function.

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Are There Other Treatment Options For Diabetes

Yes. There are two types of transplantations that might be an option for a select number of patients who have Type 1 diabetes. A pancreas transplant is possible. However, getting an organ transplant requires taking immune-suppressing drugs for the rest of your life and dealing with the side effects of these drugs. However, if the transplant is successful, youll likely be able to stop taking insulin.

Another type of transplant is a pancreatic islet transplant. In this transplant, clusters of islet cells are transplanted from an organ donor into your pancreas to replace those that have been destroyed.

Another treatment under research for Type 1 diabetes is immunotherapy. Since Type 1 is an immune system disease, immunotherapy holds promise as a way to use medication to turn off the parts of the immune system that cause Type 1 disease.

Bariatric surgery is another treatment option thats an indirect treatment for diabetes. Bariatric surgery is an option if you have Type 2 diabetes, are obese and considered a good candidate for this type of surgery. Much improved blood glucose levels are seen in people who have lost a significant amount of weight.

Of course other medications are prescribed to treat any existing health problems that contribute to increasing your risk of developing diabetes. These conditions include high blood pressure, high cholesterol and other heart-related diseases.

How Does Diabetes Lead To Amputation

4 Types Of Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1, Type 2, Gestational & Prediabetes

Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to poor blood flow . Without oxygen and nutrients , you are more prone to the development of cuts and sores that can lead to infections that cant fully heal. Areas of your body that are farthest away from your heart are more likely to experience the effects of poor blood flow. So areas of your body like your toes, feet, legs and fingers are more likely to be amputated if infection develops and healing is poor.

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How Do I Check My Blood Glucose Level Why Is This Important

Checking your blood glucose level is important because the results help guide decisions about what to eat, your physical activity and any needed medication and insulin adjustments or additions.

The most common way to check your blood glucose level is with a blood glucose meter. With this test, you prick the side of your finger, apply the drop of blood to a test strip, insert the strip into the meter and the meter will show your glucose level at that moment in time. Your healthcare provider will tell you how often youll need to check your glucose level.

Most Common Types Of Diabetes

There are many misconceptions about diabetes on the internet. The most common is there is only type 1 and type 2. It is important to note that there are actually four types of diabetes. Diabetes is a group of diseases that result in too much sugar in the bloodstream. While glucose is critical to the body for energy, insulin is necessary to break down glucose so it can enter the bodys cells. The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, pre-diabetes, and gestational.

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Avoiding Sugar And Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most dangerous health problems facing Americans today. However, it is completely avoidable and, in some cases, reversible. The key to preventing and reversing diabetes all comes down to one thing- sugar. Sugar, no matter what its form, is highly detrimental to someone who is pre-diabetic or already has diabetes. Todays modern diet is full of sugar from sources that are unnatural and dangerous. If you are at risk for diabetes or already have type 2 diabetes, it is important to avoid all sources of sugar- including artificial sugar.

Avoiding sugar and taking the steps to boost your sensitivity to insulin could help completely reverse your diabetes symptoms and enable you to live a normal if somewhat sugar deprived life.

What Is Type 1 Diabetes

The 3 Major Types of Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a life-long autoimmune condition that is usually diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood but can occur at any age.

In type 1 diabetes, the bodys own immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells in the pancreas that are responsible for producing insulin. As the body needs insulin to survive, people with type 1 diabetes must replace this insulin every day through injections or an insulin pump.

Reda more about type 1 diabetes treatment.

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