Is There A Cure For Diabetes Type 1
Presently, as noted by the main stream health care professionals, there is no permanent cure for diabetes as a whole or a definite cure for type 1 diabetes.
If there ever was a cure for diabetes found, it certainly wouldn’t be in the form of a pill.
So wiill there ever be a cure for diabetes type 1 found?
There has been outstanding research that points toward a hopeful future, and that is a light we can all look forward to.
Furthermore, while there isn’t a complete cure for type 1 diabetes, there are many great ways to regulate blood sugar to help you deal with this disease.
Curing type 1 diabetes has been found to be possible by using proper diet and adopting a more active life style through exercise.
There is an outstanding solution on the market that offers exactly that.
It’s been designed to help you identify the exact foods and exercise routines to follow to start reversing and getting rid of your diabetes.
These methods have been found to have great potential to cure type one diabetes and completely overhaul your body’s ability to fight against it.
Complications Of Untreated Type 1 Diabetes
- kidney damage
- increased likelihood of infections such as thrush and also more serious infections
- damage to the eyes
- poor blood circulation in the legs and feet, potentially leading to lower limb amputation
- damage to the nerves of the feet
- much higher risk of heart disease and stroke
- sexual impotence.
Structural Analysis And Synthesis
Purified animal-sourced insulin was initially the only type of insulin available for experiments and diabetics. was the first to produce the crystallised form in 1926. Evidence of the protein nature was first given by , , and Philip A. Shaffer in 1924. It was fully proven when Hans Jensen and Earl A. Evans Jr. isolated the amino acids phenylalanine and proline in 1935.
The amino acid structure of insulin was first characterized in 1951 by , and the first synthetic insulin was produced simultaneously in the labs of at the and at in the mid-1960s. was achieved by Chinese researchers in 1965. The complete 3-dimensional structure of insulin was determined by in s laboratory in 1969.
The first genetically engineered, synthetic human insulin was produced using in 1978 by and at the of the in collaboration with at . Genentech, founded by Swanson, Boyer and , went on in 1982 to sell the first commercially available biosynthetic human insulin under the brand name . The vast majority of insulin used worldwide is biosynthetic recombinant human insulin or its analogues. Recently, another approach has been used by a pioneering group of Canadian researchers, using an easily grown plant, for the production of much cheaper insulin.
Two other Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work on insulin. British molecular biologist , who determined the of insulin in 1955, was awarded the 1958 . received the 1977 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the development of the for insulin.
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Promising New Treatment Could Cure Type 1 Diabetes
It could stop the need for insulin injections entirely.
Having Type 1 diabetes means the bodys immune system essentially attacks the cells that produce insulin. Image: iStock
Before insulin was discovered in 1921, having type 1 diabetes was a death sentence. But while those with the condition can inject themselves regularly to balance out their blood sugar levels, it’s not without complications. A new treatment could cast all of that aside.
Having Type 1 diabetes means the bodys immune system essentially attacks the cells that produce insulin. Those with this condition therefore need to manually, by way of injection, resupply their insulin levels to balance out their blood sugar levels.
It doesnt mean theyre immune to developing Type 1 complications, however, such as kidney damage, skin and mouth conditions, and cardiovascular problems.
But new research suggests science could eliminate the need for insulin injections altogether, through cell transplants.
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But new research suggest science could eliminate the need for insulin injections altogether. Image: iStock
In a healthy person, around 1 percent of the pancreas cells produce insulin, researcher Katrina Wesencraft explains in The Conversation.
Some theories include the possibility of coating the donor cells in a bioinvisible material, such as a chemical extracted from seaweed, to sneak them into the patients body.
Teaming Up With Bacteria
The bacteria in our gut have a strong connection with our immune system. ActoBio, a company based in Belgium, wants to exploit this connection to treat type 1 diabetes. Our product candidates are based on the use of Lactococcus lactis bacteria that are genetically modified to express proteins, peptides, antibodies or human cytokines, Lothar Steidler, CTO of ActoBio, told me.
Our guts are familiar to this bacterium, as its used to produce cheese and buttermilk. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the bacteria are engineered to produce the insulin precursor human proinsulin and a signaling molecule called interleukin 10. Together they signal the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, where immune cells are stored, to restore the tolerance of insulin-producing cells with the goal of slowing down or stopping their destruction.
It is potentially a safe oral treatment that will be given for a limited period of time and could lead to patients who develop type 1 diabetes not needing to use insulin, or delay the need for insulin after diagnosis added Pieter Rottiers, CEO of ActoBio.
The company is now running a phase I/II clinical trial in the US and Europe in people with type 1 diabetes as young as 12 years old. Patients will have to have some remaining capacity for production of insulin, said Rottiers. Results are expected this year.
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Additional Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes In Babies And Toddlers
- Weight loss
- Failure to thrive, a condition involving weight loss or inability to gain weight combined with stunted growth
- Colic or fussiness that just wont let up
- Poor-quality sleep that doesnt improve no matter what you try
- Bedwetting, especially after successful potty-training
All of these symptoms are a result of hyperglycemiatoo much glucose circulating in our bloodstream, also known as high blood sugar. Any person experiencing hyperglycemia, particularly after a viral illness, should seek immediate medical help.
Very Low Calorie Diet
Studies have previously researched whether a very low calorie diet could allow people with type 2 diabetes to shed levels of fat in the pancreas and liver.
Consuming 600 calories a day could subsequently reverse, or even eliminate insulin resistance. This study is to be expanded on by Diabetes UK, who are funding a research project to see if a very low calorie liquid diet and assisted weight management can send type 2 diabetes into remission in the long-term.
Many of us are holding out for a cure for diabetes to be announced. There is yet to be a cure for diabetes but research is making gradual progress in certain areas. In this video we will look at some of the avenues which researchers are currently exploring.
Researchers are working on vaccines to prevent someone with type 1 diabetes from losing their insulin producing cells. In type 1 diabetes, the bodys immune system turns on its own insulin producing cells and periodically kills them off. A successful vaccine would prevent this from happening. The vaccine has been successful in rodents but vaccines have yet to demonstrate the same success in human trials.
Islet cell transplants are the perhaps the closest weve come to a cure for type 1 diabetes so far. Islet cell transplants involve injecting insulin producing islet cells into the body. Transplantation has helped people to significantly reduce insulin dosage requirements.
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Scientists Are Creating Vaccines For Type 1 Diabetes
These treatments could be game-changers in our fight with diabetes.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 1.6 million Americans have type 1 diabetes. Every year, these numbers get worse. Globally, the number of individuals living with type 1 diabetes seems to be increasing by around 3-4% annually.
Since its mostly seen in children, teens, and young adults, the disease was previously known as juvenile diabetes. However, middle-aged adults and older people can be diagnosed with it, too.
Unfortunately, theres no cure. The main treatment options include a low-carb and low-sugar diet accompanied by daily insulin injections. Although insulin pumps have started to replace insulin injections, many diabetes patients lack access to this more advanced medical technology and need to take insulin injections every day for the rest of their lives. There sure are other options, but they come with serious risks and lifelong consequences. Pancreas transplants, for example, are restricted to only the most unmanageable cases because of health risks, and patients who get them are generally required to take anti-rejection medication for the rest of their lives.
Physical Activity And Exercise
Exercise has many positive health and psychological benefits including physical fitness, weight management, and enhanced insulin sensitivity. It also provides opportunities for social interactions and builds self-esteem. However, exercise creates challenges for people with type 1 diabetes due to the increased risk for both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. During exercise, multiple hormones control fuel metabolism and create a balance between glucose uptake by exercising muscles and hepatic glucose production . The equilibrium between insulin secretion and the counterregulatory hormones varies according to the exercise type, intensity, and duration .
Hyperglycemia results from counterregulatory hormone excess with insufficient insulin, leading to excessive hepatic glucose production and limiting increased glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Hyperglycemia can occur before, during, and after various types of exercise. If the patient feels well, with negative or minimal urine and/or blood ketones, and there is a clear reason for the elevated blood glucose level, such as underdosing insulin at the preceding meal, it is not necessary to postpone exercise based solely on hyperglycemia. However, when people with type 1 diabetes are deprived of insulin for 1248 h and are ketotic, exercise can worsen hyperglycemia and ketosis. Therefore, vigorous activity should be avoided in the presence of severe hyperglycemia and ketosis, especially with known insulin omission.
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What Would A Diabetes Cure Need To Accomplish
While we often joke of needing a new pancreas as people with type 1 diabetes, whats really failing within our body is our immune system.
In people with type 1 diabetes, your immune system is constantly attacking the beta cells produced by your pancreas that are essential for producing insulin. While your diagnosis may have been years or decades ago, your body still tries every single day to produce insulin.
Unfortunately, your immune system is still attacking and destroying those cells every single day, too.
In order for a treatment method to fully cure a person with type 1 diabetes, it would need to do at least one of the following:
- Tell our immune system to stop attacking those beta cells
- Provide an alternative source of beta cells that are protected from the immune system
Easier said than done. Lets take a look at the top contender for curing type 1 diabetes in todays current research.
How Is It Diagnosed
Your doctor will want to do a blood test to make a diagnosis. You will take the same test twice to reach a diagnosis.
Anyone of these tests will be used to reach a diagnosis:
- The hemoglobin A1c test is also called the glycosylated hemoglobin test or A1c and measures the average blood sugar level over the last 2 to 3 months. The higher the result the higher your chances of your pre-diabetes progressing to type 2 diabetes. You are not required to fast for this test. The A1c test is also used to determine whether a diabetics treatment plan is working effectively or needs adjustments.
- Fasting plasma glucose test, your doctor will ask you to fast for 8 hours or overnight. Before you eat a healthcare professional will draw a blood sample for testing. Prediabetes is determined if there is a blood sugar level of 100-125 milligrams per deciliter
- Oral glucose tolerance test also requires fasting. Your blood will be taken at the beginning of the appointment and then two hours after drinking a sugary drink. If the blood sugar level reads 140-199 mg/dL after two hours prediabetes is indicated
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Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes
- Frequent urination. This could be your bodys way of trying to get rid of the excess sugar in your system.
- Excess thirst. As a result of the frequent urination, you will need to consume more water in order to keep from getting dehydrated.
- Unintentional weight loss/increased hunger. This could be because your body is not getting enough energy from the food you that eat, so you will either desire more food or lose a significant amount of weight.
- Fatigue. You will feel extremely tired and fatigued if your body is dehydrated and does not get the sugar and energy it requires to function.
Whats Next In Diabetes Treatment
The diabetes market is expected to reach a massively big 86Bn by 2025 combining both type 1 and type 2, and we can expect all sorts of revolutionary technologies to come forward and claim their market share. Researchers are already speculating about microchips that can diagnose diabetes type 1 before the symptoms appear or nanorobots traveling in the bloodstream while they measure glucose and deliver insulin.
Theres little fiction left in this. I strongly believe that microrobotics will come and will be part of our drug delivery within the next 10 years, said Tomas Landh, Director of Strategy and Innovation Sourcing at Novo Nordisk, at the 2013 Medicon Valley Alliance Annual Meeting
Whatever the future brings, it will undoubtedly make a huge difference in the lives of millions of people worldwide.
This article was originally published in November 2016 and has since been updated to reflect the latest developments in diabetes treatment.Images via DRI Biohub MaSTherCell MediWise A. N. Zaykov et al., Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 15,425439
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Treating T1d: Beyond Insulin
Pramlintide, brand name Symlin, is an injectable hormone that works along with insulin. It has been found that when insulin is not made, neither is amylin. This product was designed to fill that gap. Its main use is to help with post-meal blood sugars. Symlin was approved by the FDA in 2005 and is designed to be taken as an injection at all meals and snacks to reduce insulin doses, reduce stomach emptying and reduce the rise in post-meal blood sugars.
It cannot be mixed with insulinNote it must be taken separately. It is currently available by injectable pen only. Research results indicate that use of Symlin in type 1 diabetes, in conjunction with insulin, can reduce the amount of insulin needed by 0.8-7.1 units per day.
In addition, pramlintide has been shown to achieve a beneficial reduction in A1c of -0.24-0.58% and may support weight loss of 1.8-3.5 pounds. While these benefits may be very appealing, you’ll need to decide if you are up to consistently taking an additional 3-5 injections a day. Another factor is health insurance reimbursement, which will vary and should be checked before deciding whether to add this treatment or not.
Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments And Support
With Ilana Halperin MD and Elena Christofides MD
Learning you or your child has type 1 diabetes means taking an active role in health 24/7. Luckily, there are more low-key ways to track blood sugar and administer insulin than ever. From glucose monitoring to meal planning, were here to empower you with clear answers to all your pressing questions.
| Frequently Asked Questions | Support
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Financial Support And Benefits
Some people with diabetes may be eligible to receive disability benefits and incapacity benefits, depending on the impact the condition has on their life.
The main groups likely to qualify for welfare benefits are children, elderly people, people with learning disabilities or mental health problems, and those with complications of diabetes.
People over 65 who are severely disabled, may qualify for a type of disability benefit called Attendance Allowance.
Carers may also be entitled to some benefit too, depending on their involvement in caring for the person with diabetes.
Staff at your local Citizens Advice Bureau can check whether you’re getting all of the benefits you’re entitled to. Both they and your diabetes specialist nurse should also be able to give you advice about filling in the forms.
GOV.uk has more information about benefits, and the Diabetes UK website has further advice about the Disability Living Allowance .
How Does Diabetes Lead To Amputation
Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to poor blood flow . Without oxygen and nutrients , you are more prone to the development of cuts and sores that can lead to infections that cant fully heal. Areas of your body that are farthest away from your heart are more likely to experience the effects of poor blood flow. So areas of your body like your toes, feet, legs and fingers are more likely to be amputated if infection develops and healing is poor.
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Does Exercise Affect Blood Sugar Levels
- Exercise is important for everyone, including people with type 1 diabetes.
- People with type 1 diabetes need to be careful to monitor their blood sugar before, during, and after exercise and have snacks with them in case blood sugar goes too low.
- When people exercise, the muscles use insulin to access blood sugar for fuel.
- This can lead to lower than expected blood sugar.
- Exercise also may trigger release of stored glucose from the liver. This can lead to higher than expected blood sugar. This is why it is important to check blood sugar, especially when beginning a new exercise program.
- People with type 1 diabetes may see their blood sugar go up or down with exercise.