The Role Of Bariatric Surgery
Bariatric surgery can be an effective way of obtaining weight loss for people with T2DM and more severe obesity . Evidence from the observational SOS study showed that in those with diabetes, weight loss from Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding, or the now obsolete vertical banded gastroplasty could reduce weight by approximately 2030 kg over 10 years with substantial lowering of blood glucose and a reduction in cardiovascular mortality . Recent studies comparing surgery to conventional diabetes treatment suggest that better glycaemic control can be achieved with surgery, with a substantial proportion of patients developing prolonged remission from diabetes ,. There is also evidence of benefit of surgery in patients who are less obese, with a few small trials supporting the use of surgery in patients with BMI in the range 3035 kg/m2,. At present, most surgery is reserved for patients with more severe obesity, but these findings do provide further evidence of the benefits of weight loss in T2DM, and guidelines for the use of bariatric surgery may be updated in the near future .
Are Pancreatic Beta Cells Involved
To reach this conclusion, Taylor and team first looked at various metabolic factors including liver fat content, pancreatic fat content, blood concentration of triglycerides, and beta-cell function to see whether they played a role in the participants response to their weight loss program.
The team examined the contribution of these factors to the metabolic response in a subset of DiRECT participants, of which 64 volunteers had been assigned to the intervention group.
This examination revealed that participants who had not responded to the weight management program had had diabetes for a longer time namely, about 3.8 years vs. 2.7 years.
But in other respects, both nonresponders and responders proved to be similar: they had lost about the same amount of weight, exhibited a similar reduction of liver and pancreatic fat, and had a similar downregulation of blood triglycerides.
The one difference between responders and nonresponders was this: that the people who regained normal blood glucose levels after the intervention exhibited early, constant improvement in the function of pancreatic beta cells.
When beta cells secrete insulin, they do so in two phases, the first of which amounts to a brief spike in insulin levels and takes about 10 minutes. People with type 2 diabetes typically do not experience it.
Where Should Your Blood Sugar Be
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Are There Any Long
Malnutrition can cause all sorts of problems in every organ. Rapid weight loss pulls from healthy muscle and fat stores. When someone is too thin, they are at risk for more medical problems and illnesses. Very thin people tend to get wrinkles with age.
When weight is lost too fast, its ok to be alarmed. You should speak with your healthcare provider immediately to prevent any risks that the rapid weight loss may cause to your body and organs.
How Can Diabetes Cause Weight Loss
Unexpected or unintended weight loss is often a symptom of unmanaged diabetes, both type 1 and type 2.
With type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks cells of the pancreas that make insulin. Since theres no insulin available to move glucose into the bodys cells, glucose builds up in the bloodstream. The kidneys then work to remove this unused sugar through urination. The sugar isnt used as energy, so the body starts burning fat and muscle for energy, resulting in weight loss.
Weight loss in type 1 diabetes may be unintentional. If people with type 1 diabetes need to lose weight, this can be done safely by reducing calorie intake. Some people may under-treat their diabetes to lose weight, but this is highly dangerous. Skipping insulin can lead to very high blood sugar levels, a serious complication known as diabetic ketoacidosis, and potentially death.
Under-treating diabetes to lose weight can be a symptom of an eating disorder. If you think you have an eating disorder, reach out to your doctor or a mental health professional to get specialized support and treatment.
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Will Having Diabetes Make It Hard For Me To Lose Weight
Some medications used to treat diabetes often result in weight gain. But the good news is, they dont have to. Our weight loss specialists will work to design a diabetes regimen that minimizes the use of medications that can lead to weight gain, while achieving good glycemic control. We will also design a healthy eating and exercise plan that will help control your diabetes, and help you lose weight.
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The Government Of Canada’s Role
Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada are committed to helping Canadians improve their health and well-being by promoting and supporting regular physical activity and healthy eating. They play a leadership role in chronic disease prevention and control across Canada and internationally.
The Government of Canada launched the Canadian Diabetes Strategy in 1999 in partnership with the Provinces and Territories, various national health organizations and interest groups, and Aboriginal communities across the country. The CDS sought to:
- Increase public awareness about diabetes
- Prevent diabetes where possible
- Help Canadians living with diabetes better manage the disease and its complications.
In 2005, funding for the CDS was renewed at $18 million per year over 5 years. The renewed strategy focuses on:
- Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes among high-risk populations
- Early detection of Type 2 Diabetes
- Management of Types 1 and 2 Diabetes and related complications.
The renewed strategy is targeted at populations who are at risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes.
In addition, in 2007-08, through the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the federal government invested $33 million in diabetes-related research. The Government is also taking action on obesity, a key risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes, through supporting community-based healthy living programs and initiatives such as the Children’s Fitness Tax Credit and the newly revised Food Guide and Physical Activity Guides.
Symptoms In Children And Teens
Type 2 diabetes is more likely to appear after the age of 45 years, but it can affect children and teens who:
- have excess weight
- slow healing of cuts or wounds
- numbness or tingling in hands and feet
- itchy skin
If caregivers notice these symptoms, they should take the child to see a doctor. These are also symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 is less common but more likely to affect children and teenagers than adults. However, type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in young people than it was in the past.
Learn more here about how diabetes affects children and teens and how to spot the symptoms early.
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Getting Started With Weight Loss
Weight loss can be hard because it involves changing the way you eat and your physical activity. Losing weight also takes time, which can be frustrating. The good news is that you can lose weight and keep it off, even if you’ve never done it before.
Here’s what has worked for some people who have lost weight and kept it off*:
- Cutting back on calories and fat.
- Staying physically active most days of the week.
- Eating breakfast every day.
- Weighing themselves at least once per week.
- Watching less than 10 hours of TV per week.
Why Type 2 Diabetes Can Cause Weight Loss
One of the early signs of type 2 diabetes is unplanned weight loss and not just a pound or two. Unexplained weight loss of 10 pounds or more in a short period of time is cause for concern, according to the Cleveland Clinic.
The culprit? Insulin resistance.
“If the body is not able to sensitize insulin, meaning it’s not taking glucose from the blood and into the cells to be used as energy, the body will need to find an alternative energy source. It may then turn to utilizing fat and/or muscle as its energy source,” explains Maya Feller, RD, CDN, a dietitian who specializes in nutrition for chronic disease prevention. “The net effect is unintentional weight loss.”
Feller notes, though, that this is more common when someone has type 1 diabetes.
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Effects On Glycaemic Control
Weight loss via lifestyle changes is the first-line therapy for T2DM, not for its own sake, but because of the expected improvement in glycaemic control and other associated risk factors . The landmark UK Prospective Diabetes Study clearly demonstrated the benefits of tight glycaemic control . At the time the UKPDS study started , HbA1c had not been widely adopted as the best measure of glucose control, and the World Health Organization then recommended an FPG level of 7.8 mmol/l for the diagnosis of diabetes compared with the current level of 7.0 mmol/l today. The study tested whether treatment to near-normal FPG would prevent cardiovascular events, using insulin, sulfonylurea, metformin or diet. More than 5000 patients recently diagnosed with T2DM were randomised, and intensive blood glucose control reduced the risk of vascular complications in both the short- and long term, despite weight gain in the intensive control group . Therefore, if improved glycaemia reduces cardiovascular risk, and weight loss improves glycaemia, weight loss would be expected to provide long-term benefits to patients.
In overweight and obese individuals with T2DM, even modest amounts of weight loss have been shown to improve glycaemic control . Longitudinal cohort studies indicate that changes in BMI among patients with T2DM are significant predictors of changes in HbA1c , and patients who lose weight are more likely to achieve target HbA1c values than those with stable weight or weight gain .
Other Symptoms Of Diabetes In Children
Similar to adults, hallmark early signs of diabetes in children are increased urination and thirst. When blood sugar is high, it triggers a reaction in the body that pulls fluid from tissues. This will leave a child constantly thirsty, causing them to drink more fluids, which will result in a need for more bathroom breaks throughout the day. Dehydration in children becomes a risk if this occurs.
In addition to the signs of dehydration, children may have these symptoms, too:
- Sunken eyes or cheeks
- Not enough wet diapers
Here are some traits of diabetes found in kids:
- Fatigue: If a child is often tired, it may be a clue that their body is having trouble converting sugar in the bloodstream into energy.
- Vision changes: High blood sugar levels can cause blurred vision and other eyesight problems.
- Fruity smelling breath: This sign could be indicative of too much sugar in the blood.
- Extreme hunger: When a child’s muscles and organs arent receiving enough energy, it can cause extreme hunger.
- Unusual behavior: If a child seems moodier or more restless than normaland its in conjunction with other symptoms that could indicate diabetesit could be cause for concern.
- Nausea and vomiting
- Heavy breathing
Diabetes can be life-threatening if left untreated. If your child is showing signs of diabetes, its important for you to schedule a doctors appointment as soon as possible.
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Professor Roy Taylors Work At Newcastle University
Professor Roy Taylor is a professor of medicine and metabolism at the University of Newcastle. He and his research group have focused on understanding if, and how, you can reverse type 2 diabetes.
On the research groups university website, they have stated that type 2 diabetes can be reversed with major weight loss:
It has been possible to work out the basic mechanisms which lead to type 2 diabetes. Too much body fat within the liver and pancreas prevents normal insulin action and prevents normal insulin secretion. Both defects are reversible by substantial weight loss.
Heres our first interaction between weight loss and insulin function. Professor Taylor is saying that if you lose weight, you can also return insulin action and secretion to normal.
- Insulin action: refers to insulin sensitivity, i.e. proper insulin action means theres little or no insulin resistance in the body.
- Insulin secretion: the ability of the beta cells in the pancreas to release insulin into the blood.
The research group goes on to highlight one further critical point. The insulin-secreting function of the pancreas decreases once fat levels go above a persons individual fat threshold.
This threshold varies from person to person and is highly associated with genetics and heritage . This is what they say:
Professor Taylors research paper provides an explanation for the whole cycle, which he has called the Twin-cycle hypothesis.
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