Other Benefits Of Vitamin B12
Sufficient intake of vitamin B12 is essential for our overall health and wellbeing.
Now that we have established healthy levels of the vitamin have a positive influence on thyroid functioning, especially for hypothyroid individuals, lets see some other health benefits linked with this micronutrient. They are:
Assessment Of B12 Status Among Patients With Pernicious Anemia
Pernicious anemia is a condition in which the gastric parietal cells fail to synthesis the intrinsic factor, which is essential for B12 absorption. A positive test for intrinsic factor antibodies may be a useful assessment method in some patients with pernicious anemia . However, some individuals do test positive for the intrinsic factor antibody without actually having pernicious anemia. Parietal cell antibody test constitutes another, more accurate, assessment method. It is believed that up to 90 percent of patients with pernicious anemia will have a positive parietal cell antibody test . Both the intrinsic factor antibody and the parietal cell antibody may detect the presence of antibodies in the stomach secretions and in serum.
Are You At Risk Of Vitamin B12 Deficiency
There are many causes for vitamin B12 deficiency. Surprisingly, two of them are practices often undertaken to improve health: a vegetarian diet and weight-loss surgery.
Plants dont make vitamin B12. The only foods that deliver it are meat, eggs, poultry, dairy products, and other foods from animals. Strict vegetarians and vegans are at high risk for developing a B12 deficiency if they dont eat grains that have been fortified with the vitamin or take a vitamin supplement. People who have weight-loss surgery are also more likely to be low in vitamin B12 because the operation interferes with the bodys ability to extract vitamin B12 from food.
Conditions that interfere with nutrient absorption, such celiac or Crohns disease, can cause B12trouble. So can the use of commonly prescribed heartburn drugs, which reduce acid production in the stomach . The condition is more likely to occur in older people due to the cutback in stomach acid production that often occurs with aging.
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B Vitamins May Lower Type 2 Diabetes Risk Intake Order May Impact Onset
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Researchers linked consumption of vitamins B2 and B6 to a lower risk for type 2 diabetes, according to a study presented at Nutrition 2019.
A second study, also presented at Nutrition 2019, indicated that the order in which food is eaten may influence the onset of diabetes.
In the first study, Kim V.E. Braun, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher at Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands and colleagues analyzed certain pre-existing food and supplemental vitamin consumption data collected every 2 to 4 years from 8,141 health professionals with diabetes.
They found that those who consumed the highest amounts of vitamin B2 foods and supplements had a 10% lower risk for type 2 diabetes, while those who consumed the highest amounts of vitamin B6 foods and supplements had an 11% lower risk for type 2 diabetes. In addition, vitamin B12 was more likely to lower the risk for type 2 diabetes when it was primarily consumed as a supplement.
Food order may matter
In the second study, Christiani Henry,MSc, PhD, of the Singapore Institutes for Clinical Sciences, and colleagues observed 16 healthy patients as they ate green leafy vegetables, rice and chicken in various orders.
Braun VE, et al. Methyl donor nutrient intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: Results from 3 large US cohorts.
Both presented at: Nutrition 2019 June 8-11 Baltimore.
It May Treat Mouth Ulcers
Another symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency? Mouth sores or ulcers. These can pop up on your tongue, gums, or on the inside of your mouth. This can also be indicative of a folate deficiency . While mouth ulcers usually don’t need treatment, they can be quite painful, especially if you eat acidic fruits such as oranges, lemon, grapefruit, or something spicy. One way to decrease the pain and accelerate the healing process is to take vitamin B6 and B12 supplements.
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Metformin And Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Reduced absorption of vitamin B12 is a side effect of long-term use of metformin. Some studies have shown that metformin can reduce the absorption of vitamin B12 in 30% of people with type 2 diabetes .
Metformin-related vitamin B12 deficiency occurs as metformin causes reduced vitamin B12 absorption by interfering with the vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex. The receptors in our small intestines that can absorb the B12-IF complex, also require calcium to complete the process. This is referred to as being calcium-dependant. Metformin is known to affect calcium-dependant processes which can lead to problems with the B12-IF complex from being absorbed.
In the study Increased intake of calcium reverses vitamin B12 malabsorption induced by metformin, it was found that providing calcium supplementation to people taking metformin, was able to help prevent metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency.
Choosing The Right Vitamin B
A doctor may recommend a certain type of this supplement, depending on a persons health needs.
Some vitamin and supplement companies use independent quality testing of their products. Those that pass may have a seal of approval from an independent testing organization.
This seal does not guarantee that the product is 100-percent safe or effective for everyone, but it means that the product contains what is listed on the label without contaminants.
Some testing organizations and their certifications include:
- ConsumerLab.coms approved quality product seal
- NSF Internationals dietary supplement certification
- the verified mark of The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, or USP
In most cases, vitamin B does not interact negatively with other medications. However, certain medicines can make a vitamin B deficiency more likely.
These are some examples of medications that can result in low levels of specific B vitamins:
- Blood pressure drugs and chemotherapy drugs can lower a persons B-1 levels.
- Antiseizure medications used for epilepsy can lower B-3, B-6, and B-9 levels.
- Drugs that treat tuberculosis can cause low levels of B-3 and B-6.
- Certain cancer drugs can lower B-9 levels.
- Certain drugs that treat ulcerative colitis can cause low levels of vitamin B-9.
- Certain antibiotics and medicines for ulcers, diabetes, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, may lower B-12 levels.
Avocados are a major source of B vitamins.
Some of the best food sources of B vitamins include:
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Therapeutic Benefits Of Vitamin B12 Replacement Among T2dm Patients With Diabetic Neuropathy
Vitamin B12 deficiency and the accompanying hyperhomocysteinemia and elevated MMA levels have been documented to cause a distinct sensory polyneuropathy that closely mimics diabetic neuropathy. Worsening of diabetic neuropathy is also noted among patients with co-existing vitamin B12 deficiency .
Vitamin B12 replacement has been shown to cause symptomatic improvement among patients with severe diabetic neuropathy. One meta-analysis showed that if used either alone or in combination with vitamin B complex, there was a significant improvement in the somatic symptoms like pain and paraesthesias. Three included studies also noted an improvement in autonomic symptoms with use of vitamin B12 alone .
Similar superior positive findings of reduction in pain and paraesthesias were also noted with use of vitamin B12 as compared to nortriptyline in a randomized, single-blind clinical trial done in Iran among 100 patients with diabetic neuropathy. This study was approved by the Ethics review board of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran .
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How Much Do You Know About Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12, one of the eight B vitamins, is vital to the healthy function of every cell in the body. Insufficient vitamin B12 intake or insufficient absorption in the gastrointestinal system can cause a wide range of health problems. In addition, some of these can be confused with complications related to diabetes, so its important to know the possible causes, signs, and symptoms of deficiency. How much do you know about vitamin B12? Take this quiz and find out!
1. The primary functions of vitamin B12 in the body are the formation of red blood cells and the maintenance of a healthy nervous system.TRUEFALSE
2. Vitamin B12 is naturally available in which of the following foods? A. Salmon.C. Potatoes.D. Lettuce.
3. Insufficient amounts of B12 in the body can cause which of the following symptoms? A. Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet.B. Diarrhea or constipation.D. Weakness and fatigue.E. Confusion, memory loss, or dementia.
4. B12 deficiency is a common side effect of long-term treatment with which of the following diabetes drugs?A. Thiazolidinediones .B. Metformin .C. Sulfonyureas .D. DPP-4 inhibitors .
5.Vitamin B12 supplements can be taken in which of the following ways? A. By injection.B. By pill, either swallowed or sublingually .C. By nasal spray.D. In B12-fortified foods, such as certain breakfast cereals.
6. Bodily damage from B12 deficiency can be permanent.TRUEFALSE
Metformin & Vitamin B1: Second Opinion
“I think it lends more support to a practice that is already in place with endocrinologists,” says Minisha Sood, MD, director of inpatient diabetes at the Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, of the study findings. She reviewed the research but didn’t participate in it.
She screens for Vitamin B12 deficiency in her patients ”at least annually if on metformin.” According to Dr. Sood, many endocrinologists do screen for B12 deficiencies in those on metformin. However, she says, many patients with diabetes who are on metformin are cared for by general practice physicians or internists. These patients should ask their doctor’s advice about getting screened for B12 deficiencies, Dr. Sood says.
B12 Deficiency Symptoms & Treatment
Symptoms of B12 deficiency may include numbness, tingling in the feet, and memory problems, Dr. Crandall says. Loss of appetite, weight loss and fatigue can occur. The deficiency typically develops slowly over time, so the regular screening could detect it early.
Treatment includes a weekly B12 injection and then switching to oral vitamins.
The recommended dietary allowance for B12 is 2.4 micrograms for those age 14 and older. Foods high in B12 include cooked clams and beef liver, fortified breakfast cereals and fish such as salmon and trout.
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Medications To Boost Vitamin B12 Absorption
You can boost the absorption of vitamin B12 in your body by taking the following medications:
1- An antibiotic- known as chloramphenicol
2- Metformin containing Glumetza and Glucophage for treatment of diabetes type 2.
3- Medications of peptic ulcer and acid reflux disorder including Omeprazole , Famotidine , Ranitidine , and Lansoprazole
Preventing The Development Of Diabetes Mellitus
The risk of the diabetes raises seven times in older age than it is in younger age . So, it is really important to gear up to control diabetes in midlife. Specially minimizing the spread of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is crucial for individuals and even the societies. The importance of eradication of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is even because of its harmful side effects.
Healthy lifestyle and body-weight control in midlife plays a crucial role in avoiding or postponing manifestation of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus since lifestyle interventions seem more durable concerning their protective potential in this part of life. The different pharmaceutical approaches to eradicate type 2 Diabetes Mellitus are not effective after they root out the disease for the first time. Also, such approaches have so many side effects on the patients going through such techniques. Therefore, for the time being, no drug is licensed for diabetes prevention.
Nonetheless, novel medicaments attempts for diabetes prevention and supporting healthy aging are under scientific investigation. The diabetes can result in severe hypoglycemia, premature cardiovascular complications, other severe problems and even death. So, every possible step should be taken in order to eradicate this. The lifestyle of the patient should be changed to fight diabetes. All possible pharmaceutical techniques should also be applied to control the ailment. Diabetes prevention has a vital influence in the making of health policy .
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Is Type 2 Diabetes Genetic
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Screening Approach For Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Patients With T2dm
Currently, there are no published guidelines advocating for routine screening for vitamin B12 deficiency among patients with T2DM. However among type 2 diabetic patients, it is clinically plausible to screen for vitamin B12 deficiency prior to initiation of metformin and later annually among elderly patients with history of long term use of metformin , use of high doses of metformin , clinically worsening diabetic distal polyneuropathy in the presence or absence of the discussed haematological abnormalities .
The screening approach for vitamin B12 deficiency among diabetic patients and the general population is similar. Measurement of the serum vitamin B12 concentrations should be the preliminary screening step for vitamin B12 deficiency among patients with T2DM. Concentrations < 200 pg/ml are usually diagnostic of vitamin B12 deficiency while concentrations > 400 pg/ml confirm absence of vitamin B12 deficiency .
Measurement of serum MMA or homocysteine concentrations is a more sensitive and specific approach for screening especially among type 2 diabetic patients with borderline serum vitamin B12 concentrations of 200-400 pg/ml and subtle haematological manifestations. Serum homocysteine and MMA concentrations of 5-15 mol/l and < 0.28 mol/l are considered within the normal range respectively .
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Folate Folic Acid Or B9
The term folate includes 150 components of the family of pteroilglutamate, which participate in cell replication by enzymatic activity in purine base synthesis for DNA and are a primary co-factor for transamination in the transformation of amino acids, particularly homocysteine into methionine. Folates are present in animal tissue, leafy vegetables, legumes and nuts and their deficiency has been associated to megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects, cardiovascular disease, cancer and senile dementia .
Implication of folate in pathogenesis of type 2 DM is linked with vitamin B12 shortage and its consequent hyperhomocysteinemia, and although its deficiency is not widespread, supplementation trials have been carried out in diabetic patients .
Folates are made up of 4 benzoic acid, pteroic acid which is bonded with multiple or single monomers of L-glutamate. They lie in the family of heterocyclic organic compounds group .
What Vitamin B12 Cant Do
The Internet is full of articles lauding the use of vitamin B12 to prevent Alzheimers disease, heart disease, and other chronic conditions or reverse infertility, fatigue, eczema, and a long list of other health problems. Most are based on poor or faulty evidence.
Take Alzheimers disease as an example. Although there is a relationship between low vitamin B12 levels and cognitive decline, clinical studiesincluding those involving people with Alzheimers diseasehave not shown improvement in cognitive function, even doses of the vitamin as high as 1000 micrograms.
For now, its best to get enough vitamin B12 to prevent a deficiency, and not look to it as a remedy for what ails you.
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Can Vitamin D Usage Increase Blood Glucose Levels
Vitamin D, also called the sunshine vitamin, helps your body absorb calcium, so it helps you maintain healthy, strong bones and teeth. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, vitamin D also supports your immune system, and it is potentially helpful in preventing cancer. Recent studies have concluded that people with healthy vitamin D levels may be less likely to develop type-2 diabetes, and vitamin D may help keep blood glucose levels low.
It May Reduce Tingling In Hands Or Feet
There are a few reasons why you may be experiencing tingling in either your hands, feet or both. For example, when you experience tingling or numbness, it could be a sign that you have prediabetes which occurs when the body has higher than normal blood sugar levels but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes. More specifically, this sensation is a big indicator of pre-diabetic neuropathy and if left untreated, it could result in a type of nerve damage called peripheral neuropathy. However, Cedrina Calder, MD, MSPH, and member of our medical review board notes that numbness and tingling are more often signs of diabetes than prediabetes. In fact, this symptom could be a big indicator of diabetic neuropathy.
However, a less severe cause for tingling or numbness in the hands or feet may be a vitamin B12 deficiency. Inadequate consumption of B-12 is known to cause a “pins and needles” sensation in both the hands and feet. This is because vitamin B-12 helps to produce a substance called myelin, which acts as a protective coating for nerves and enables them to transmit sensations. Without this shield, nerves can become damaged.
But before you start taking vitamin B12 supplements, be sure to talk with your physician.
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Years Of Taking Popular Diabetes Drug Tied To Risk Of B12 Deficiency
By Kathryn Doyle, Reuters Health
5 Min Read
– People taking metformin, a common type 2 diabetes medication, for several years may be at heightened risk of vitamin B12 deficiency and anemia, according to a new analysis of long-term data.
Metformin helps to control the amount of sugar, or glucose, in the blood by reducing how much glucose is absorbed from food and produced by the liver, and by increasing the bodys response to the hormone insulin, according to the National Institutes of Health.
Metformin is the most commonly used drug to treat type 2 diabetes, so many millions of people are taking it, usually for a prolonged period , said senior study author Dr. Jill P Crandall of Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City, by email.
Smaller numbers of people take metformin for prevention of diabetes or treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome, Crandall told Reuters Health.
The researchers used data from the Diabetes Prevention Program and the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study, which followed participants at high risk for type 2 diabetes for more than 10 years.
During follow-up, the participants provided blood samples at the five- and 13-year points.
Using these blood samples, the researchers found that at year five, average B12 levels were lower in the metformin group than the placebo group, and B12 deficiency was more common, affecting 4 percent of those on metformin compared to 2 percent of those not taking the drug.