The Best And Worst Type 2 Diabetes Choices By Food Group
As you pick the best foods for type 2 diabetes, heres a helpful guideline from the NIDDK to keep in mind: Fill one-half your plate with nonstarchy vegetables. One-fourth of your plate should feature your protein , and the final fourth should include a grain or other starch, such as starchy vegetables, a piece of fruit, or a small glass of milk.
Because processed and sugary foods are unhealthy carbs, limit them in your diabetes diet, says Massey. That includes soda, candy, and other packaged or processed snacks, such as corn chips, potato chips, and the like. And while artificial sweeteners like those found in diet sodas wont necessarily spike your blood sugar in the same way as white sugar, they could still have an effect on your blood sugar and even alter your bodys insulin response.
A previous study found that when 17 obese, non-insulin-resistant people ingested a beverage treated with the artificial sweetener sucralose before taking a standardized dose of glucose, their blood sugar and insulin levels rose more than when they drank plain water. On the other hand, a meta-analysis published May 2018 in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that artificial sweeteners didnt increase blood sugar levels. More research is needed to determine how artificial sweeteners affect people with diabetes.
For now, heres what you need to know about choosing the most diabetes-friendly foods from each food group.
What Foods High In Protein Are Good For Type 2 Diabetes
The American Diabetes Association recommends lean proteins low in saturated fat for people with diabetes. If youre following a vegan or vegetarian diet, getting enough and the right balance of protein may be more challenging, but you can rely on foods like beans , nuts and nut spreads, tempeh, and tofu to get your fix, notes the Cleveland Clinic. Just be sure to keep portion size in mind when snacking on nuts, as they are also high in fat and calories, according to Harvard Health. The American Heart Association counts a small handful of whole nuts as one serving. If you opt for unsalted almonds, 1.5 ounces will provide 258 calories and nearly 23 g of fat, per estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture .
Meanwhile, processed or packaged foods should be avoided or limited in your diabetes diet because, in addition to added sugars and processed carbohydrates, these foods are often high in sodium, according to the AHA. Getting too much sodium in your diet can increase your blood pressure and, in turn, the risk of heart disease or stroke, notes Harvard Health. And heart disease and stroke are two common complications of diabetes, according to the Mayo Clinic. Its important to keep your blood pressure in check when managing diabetes.
Best options, according to the ADA:
Best options , per the ADA and the NIDDK:
- Wild or brown rice
What Are The Five Types Of Diabetes Under This New Classification
The five types of diabetes suggested by the researchers are as follows:
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How Do I Check My Blood Glucose Level Why Is This Important
Checking your blood glucose level is important because the results help guide decisions about what to eat, your physical activity and any needed medication and insulin adjustments or additions.
The most common way to check your blood glucose level is with a blood glucose meter. With this test, you prick the side of your finger, apply the drop of blood to a test strip, insert the strip into the meter and the meter will show your glucose level at that moment in time. Your healthcare provider will tell you how often youll need to check your glucose level.
What Are The Consequences
Diabetes can have a variety of acute and long-term problems. Moreover, extreme highs or lows in blood sugar can be life-threatening.
In addition to the potential for medical emergencies, diabetes can have many long-term complications, such as
- Kidney damage
- Alzheimers disease
Although, every patient with diabetes will have a different experience, and the key is being diligent in managing your condition.
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Can Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes And Gestational Diabetes Be Prevented
Although diabetes risk factors like family history and race cant be changed, there are other risk factors that you do have some control over. Adopting some of the healthy lifestyle habits listed below can improve these modifiable risk factors and help to decrease your chances of getting diabetes:
- Eat a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean or Dash diet. Keep a food diary and calorie count of everything you eat. Cutting 250 calories per day can help you lose ½ pound per week.
- Get physically active. Aim for 30 minutes a day at least five days a week. Start slow and work up to this amount or break up these minutes into more doable 10 minute segments. Walking is great exercise.
- Lose weight if you are overweight. Dont lose weight if you are pregnant, but check with your obstetrician about healthy weight gain during your pregnancy.
- Lower your stress. Learn relaxation techniques, deep breathing exercises, mindful meditation, yoga and other helpful strategies.
- Limit alcohol intake. Men should drink no more than two alcoholic beverages a day women should drink no more than one.
- Get an adequate amount of sleep .
- Take medications to manage existing risk factors for heart disease or to reduce the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes as directed by your healthcare provider.
- If you think you have symptoms of prediabetes, see your provider.
How Is Diabetes Diagnosed
Diabetes is diagnosed and managed by checking your glucose level in a blood test. There are three tests that can measure your blood glucose level: fasting glucose test, random glucose test and A1c test.
- Fasting plasma glucose test: This test is best done in the morning after an eight hour fast .
- Random plasma glucose test: This test can be done any time without the need to fast.
- A1c test: This test, also called HbA1C or glycated hemoglobin test, provides your average blood glucose level over the past two to three months. This test measures the amount of glucose attached to hemoglobin, the protein in your red blood cells that carries oxygen. You dont need to fast before this test.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: In this test, blood glucose level is first measured after an overnight fast. Then you drink a sugary drink. Your blood glucose level is then checked at hours one, two and three.
|Type of test|
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Cluster : Severe Autoimmune Diabetes
The first cluster and the one that made up the smallest number of patients has been dubbed severe autoimmune diabetes. All subjects that fell into this cluster were found to have diabetes-related autoantibodies that suggest their low insulin levels are caused by an autoimmune factor. This cluster not only includes all traditional type 1 diabetics but also anyone diagnosed with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults .
What Should I Expect If I Have Been Diagnosed With Diabetes
If you have diabetes, the most important thing you can do is keep your blood glucose level within the target range recommended by your healthcare provider. In general, these targets are:
- Before a meal: between 80 and 130 mg/dL.
- About two hours after the start of a meal: less than 180 mg/dL.
You will need to closely follow a treatment plan, which will likely include following a customized diet plan, exercising 30 minutes five times a week, quitting smoking, limiting alcohol and getting seven to nine hours of sleep a night. Always take your medications and insulin as instructed by your provider.
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What Are The Lesser
Only about 2% of people have other types of diabetes worldwide. These include different types of monogenic diabetes, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, and diabetes caused by rare conditions.
Certain medications like steroids and antipsychotics can lead to other types of diabetes.
People with these types of diabetes can face challenges getting a correct diagnosis, and sometimes wait months or years for answers to their medical questions.
No Matter Where You Are In Your Fight Heres Where You Need To Be
Whether youve been newly diagnosed, have been fighting against type 1 or type 2 diabetes for a while, or are helping a loved one, youve come to the right place. This is the start of gaining a deeper understanding of how you can live a healthier lifewith all the tools, health tips, and food ideas you need. Wherever youre at with your diabetes, know that you have options and that you dont have to be held back. You can still live your best life. All you have to do is take action and stick with it.
New to diabetes? Learn how diabetes is diagnosed.
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What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition. It happens when your liver breaks down fat to use as energy because theres not enough insulin and therefore glucose isnt being used as an energy source. Fat is broken down by the liver into a fuel called ketones. The formation and use of ketones is a normal process if it has been a long time since your last meal and your body needs fuel. Ketones are a problem when your fat is broken down too fast for your body to process and they build up in your blood. This makes your blood acidic, which is a condition called ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be the result of uncontrolled Type 1 diabetes and less commonly, Type 2 diabetes.Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by the presence of ketones in your urine or blood and a basic metabolic panel. The condition develops over several hours and can cause coma and possibly even death.
What Is Diabetes Exactly
Diabetes mellitus consists of several metabolic disorders that affect insulin production, the action of insulin, or both. Insulin is produced by the pancreas to allow glucose to enter your bodyâs cells and can then be used as energy.
When glucose levels in the blood increase, the pancreas releases insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to the bodyâs cells and allows the glucose to enter and to be metabolized and used as energy.
In patients living with diabetes mellitus, insulin is either not produced or unable to attach to the cell to allow glucose to enter. In this case, glucose will build up in the bloodstream. This buildup of glucose can cause a variety of health complications if not treated.
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Maturity Onset Diabetes Of The Young
MODY is a rare form of diabetes which is different from both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and runs strongly in families. MODY is caused by a mutation in a single gene. If a parent has this gene mutation, any child they have, has a 50 per cent chance of inheriting it from them. If a child does inherit the mutation they will generally go on to develop MODY before theyre 25, whatever their weight, lifestyle, ethnic group etc.
Recent Discussion Of New Types
Recently, some researchers have suggested that two additional types of diabetes might exist. These arent yet official diabetes types or diagnoses, but that might change as more information becomes available.
- Type 3 diabetes.Type 3 diabetes is used to explain the theory that insulin resistance might cause Alzheimers disease, a form of dementia. A 2018 research review showed that people with type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop Alzheimers disease. Experts are still investigating this link.
- Type 4 diabetes. Type 4 diabetes is the proposed term for diabetes caused by insulin resistance in older people who dont have overweight or obesity. A
Many of these symptoms are also linked to other conditions and might not always indicate diabetes.
Its a good idea to make an appointment with a medical professional if youve been experiencing any of these symptoms. A doctor can review your symptoms and order any tests they think are needed.
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Is Type 1 Diabetes Genetic
The short answer is yes: A family history of diabetes matters. In fact more than 40 genetic regions have been identified that are related to immune function and beta cells , Aaron Cox, Ph.D., an instructor of medicine in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolism at Baylor College of Medicine, tells SELF. This genetic predisposition is coupled with impaired function of the immune system and whats called a precipitating eventanything that could cause beta cell stress like environmental factors 2 or even an infection. Ultimately, the immune system recognizes the bodys own proteins as foreign and proceeds to destroy the beta cells from which these foreign proteins originate.
To bring it a little closer to home, having a first-degree family member with type 1 diabetes increases your risk significantly. In fact, according to a 2013 study published in Diabetes Care, a total of 12.2% of study participants had such a relative with type 1 diabetes. Here is what the breakdown looked like: 6.2% had a father with type 1, 3.2% had a mother with type 1, and 4.8% had a sibling with type 1.3 Though, if you have an identical twin with type 1, your risk goes up to about 50%.4 Additionally, if one or both of your parents were diagnosed by age 10 then your risk will also be generally higher. Interestingly, a childs risk is twice as high if their dad has type 1 versus if their mom has it.5
Can Diabetes Kill You
Yes, its possible that if diabetes remains undiagnosed and uncontrolled it can cause devastating harm to your body. Diabetes can cause heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and coma. These complications can lead to your death. Cardiovascular disease in particular is the leading cause of death in adults with diabetes.
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What Is Continuous Glucose Monitoring
Advancements in technology have given us another way to monitor glucose levels. Continuous glucose monitoring uses a tiny sensor inserted under your skin. You don’t need to prick your finger. Instead, the sensor measures your glucose and can display results anytime during the day or night. Ask your healthcare provider about continuous glucose monitors to see if this is an option for you.
What’s It Like For Teens With Type 2 Diabetes
Sometimes people who have diabetes feel different from their friends because they need to think about how they eat and how to control their blood sugar levels every day.
Some teens with diabetes want to deny that they even have it. They might hope that if they ignore diabetes, it will just go away. They may feel angry, depressed, or helpless, or think that their parents are constantly worrying about their diabetes management.
If you’ve been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, it’s normal to feel like your world has been turned upside down. Your diabetes care team is there to provide answers and support. Don’t hesitate to ask your doctors, dietitian, and other treatment professionals for advice and tips. It also can help to find support groups where you can talk about your feelings and find out how other teens cope.
Diabetes brings challenges, but teens who have it play sports, travel, date, go to school, and work just like their friends.
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Central Diabetes Insipidus Is The Most Common Form
Central diabetes insipidus is the most common form of DI because it occurs in all population demographics. There are genetic versions of this disease and it can be caused by an injury as well. To some extent, every person on the planet is at some level of risk of developing this form of DI every day.
How is it caused? The genetic version of central diabetes insipidus is caused by a direct transfer of a faulty gene from parent to child. It is usually from the father, but can also come from the mother or both parents. The signs and symptoms of this disease can be present at birth.
The most common reason for this version DI to occur, however, is through surgery. 1 in 5 people who have a surgery, especially near the pituitary gland, will develop this disease. An injury, inflammation, a tumor, or even an illness like tuberculosis or meningitis can also cause diabetes insipidus to develop.
What happens with this version of the disease is the hypothalamus doesnt tell the pituitary gland to make enough of the hormone that is needed. This means that the kidneys always think that the fluids need to be taken out of the blood stream so that it can be converted to urine and then expelled. In return, people with central diabetes insipidus feel consistently thirsty because their kidneys are taking out too much water.