Ways To Manage Diabetes
Treatment for diabetes depends on the type. T1DM is always treated with insulin since none is being made by the body, and we cant live without it. Today, there are many types of insulin, and they can be given through traditional syringes, syringe pens, and insulin pumps.The backbone of treatment for T2DM is lifestyle management and a drug called metformin. Lifestyle changes include a healthy diet high in fruits and vegetables, regular exercise, and weight loss. Other oral and injectable medications are available if lifestyle and metformin alone are not enough or if metformin cannot be taken for some reason. Some people with diabetes will also need to use insulin to treat their T2DM. This usually occurs after many years of having the disease or when blood sugar levels cannot be controlled through other means.Gestational diabetes is generally managed with dietary changes and regular glucose checks. If this is not enough, the traditional medication for gestational diabetes is insulin. Some doctors also prescribe metformin for gestational diabetes, although this is considered an off-label treatment .
Kidney Risks Related To Type 2 Diabetes
The risk for developing chronic kidney disease increases with time in people with diabetes. Diabetes is the most common cause of renal failure, making up about 44% of cases. Keeping your diabetes under control can reduce the risk of kidney failure. Medications are also used to reduce the risk of kidney disease in people with diabetes.
Persisting Infections And Sores
Elevated glucose degrees may make it harder for your body to heal. Consequently, injuries like cuts and sores stay open longer. This makes them a lot more at risk to infection.In some cases, individuals dont discover that they have high blood glucose levels since they do not feel any signs and symptoms. High blood glucose could bring about long-term problems, such as:
- a greater threat for cardiovascular disease
- foot troubles
- eye illness
- kidney disease
Individuals with diabetes are likewise in danger for major bladder infections. In people without diabetes mellitus, bladder infections are generally agonizing. Nevertheless, diabetics might not have that sensation of discomfort with urination. The infection may not be identified until it has infected the kidneys.
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What Are The Treatments For Type 2 Diabetes
Treatment for type 2 diabetes involves managing your blood sugar levels. Many people are able to do this by living a healthy lifestyle. Some people may also need to take medicine.
- A healthy lifestyle includes following a healthy eating plan and getting regular physical activity. You need to learn how to balance what you eat and drink with physical activity and diabetes medicine, if you take any.
- Medicines for diabetes include oral medicines, insulin, and other injectable medicines. Over time, some people will need to take more than one type of medicine to control their diabetes.
- You will need to check your blood sugar regularly. Your health care provider will tell you how often you need to do it.
- It’s also important to keep your blood pressure and cholesterol levels close to the targets your provider sets for you. Make sure to get your screening tests regularly.
Repeating Infections And Also Sores
Raised sugar degrees may make it harder for your body to heal. For that reason, injuries like cuts as well as sores remain open longer. This makes them more susceptible to infection.Occasionally, people do not see that they have high blood sugar level degrees because they dont really feel any signs and symptoms. High blood glucose can cause lasting problems, such as:
- a greater risk for cardiovascular disease
- foot issues
- eye illness
- kidney condition
Individuals with diabetes mellitus are also in jeopardy for serious bladder infections. In individuals without diabetic issues, bladder infections are generally excruciating. However, diabetics may not have that experience of pain with peeing. The infection could not be spotted until it has infected the kidneys.
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Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes symptoms often take several years to develop. Some people dont notice any symptoms at all. Type 2 diabetes usually starts when youre an adult, though more and more children and teens are developing it. Because symptoms are hard to spot, its important to know the risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Make sure to visit your doctor if you have any of them.
What Happens In Diabetes
Our bodies break down the foods we eat into glucose and other nutrients we need, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract. The glucose level in the blood rises after a meal and triggers thepancreas to make the hormone insulin and release it into the bloodstream. But in people with diabetes, the body either can’t make or can’t respond to insulin properly.
Insulin works like a key that opens the doors to cells and lets the glucose in. Without insulin, glucose can’t get into the cells and so it stays in the bloodstream. As a result, the level of sugar in the blood remains higher than normal. High blood sugar levels are a problem because they can cause a number of health problems.
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Signs And Symptoms Of Diabetes
The signs and symptoms of diabetes are disregarded by many because of the chronic progression of the disease. People do not consider this as a serious problem because unlike many other diseases the consequences of hyperglycaemia are not manifested immediately. People are not aware that damage can start several years before symptoms become noticeable. This is unfortunate because recognition of early symptoms can help to get the disease under control immediately and to prevent vascular complications.
How Is Type 2 Diabetes Managed
Theres no cure for Type 2 diabetes. But you can manage the condition by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and taking medication if needed. Work with your healthcare provider to manage your:
- Blood sugar: A blood glucose meter or continuous glucose monitoring can help you meet your blood sugar target. Your healthcare provider may also recommend regular A1c tests, oral medications , insulin therapy or injectable non-insulin diabetes medications.
- Blood pressure: Lower your blood pressure by not smoking, exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet. Your healthcare provider may recommend blood pressure medication such as beta blockers or ACE inhibitors.
- Cholesterol: Follow a meal plan low in saturated fats, trans fat, salt and sugar. Your healthcare provider may recommendstatins, which are a type of drug to lower cholesterol.
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Darker Area Of Skin That Feels Like Velvet
A dark patch of velvety skin on the back of your neck, armpit, groin, or elsewhere could mean that you have too much insulin in your blood. This is often a sign of prediabetes.The medical name for this skin condition is acanthosis nigricans.
Often causing darker skin in the creases of the neck, AN may be the first sign that someone has diabetes.
- Get tested for diabetes
When To See A Dermatologist
Diabetes can cause many other skin problems. Most skin problems are harmless, but even a minor one can become serious in people who have diabetes. A board-certified dermatologist can recognize skin problems due to diabetes and help you manage them.
Are all dermatologists board certified?
No. See what it takes to become board certified.
ImagesImage 1: Image Courtesy of Clark C. Otley, MD. All Rights Reserved
Images 3, 7, 8, 9: Used with permission of the American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching Slides.
Image 2 from DermNetNZ
Some images used with permission of Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
ReferencesCohen Sabban, EN. Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus from A to Z. Focus session presented at: 74th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology March 4-8, 2016 Washington D.C.
Duff M, Demidova O, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Clinical Diabetes. 2015 33:40-8.
Kalus AA, Chien AJ, et al. Diabetes mellitus and other endocrine disorders. In: Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, et al. Fitzpatricks Dermatology in General Medicine . McGraw Hill Medical, New York, 2008:1461-70.
McKinley-Grant L, Warnick M, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease. In: Kelly AP and Taylor S. Dermatology for Skin of Color. . The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. China, 2009:481-4.
Morgan AJ and Schwartz RA. Diabetic dermopathy: A subtle sign with grave implications. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008 58:447-51.
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Diet For Type 2 Diabetes
Diet is an important tool to keep your heart healthy and blood glucose levels within a safe and healthy range. It doesnt have to be complicated or unpleasant.
The diet recommended for people with type 2 diabetes is the same diet just about everyone should follow. It boils down to a few key actions:
Although these options for healthy fats are good for you, theyre also high in calories. Moderation is key. Opting for low-fat dairy products will also keep your fat intake under control. Discover more diabetes-friendly foods, from cinnamon to shirataki noodles.
Risk Factors For Diabetes
Many studies have shown that awareness about the diabetes and its complications is poor among the general population specially in the rural areas,. There is an urgent need to create awareness among the population regarding diabetes and about the serious consequences of this chronic disorder. Epidemiological data from India have shown the presence of a number of risk factors which can be easily identified by simple non-invasive risk scores,. The major risk factors are listed in .
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What’s New In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes
Doctors and researchers are developing new equipment and treatments to help kids deal with the special problems of growing up with diabetes.
Some kids and teens already use new devices that make blood glucose testing and insulin injections easier and more effective. One of these is the insulin pump, a mechanical device that can be programmed to deliver insulin more like the pancreas does.
Researchers are also testing ways to stop diabetes before it starts. For example, scientists are studying whether diabetes can be prevented in those who may have inherited an increased risk for the disease.
Your Vision Seems Blurry
Dont be alarmed: This is not diabetic retinopathy, where the blood vessels in the back of the eye are getting destroyed, says Dr. Cypess. In the early stages of diabetes, the eye lens is not focusing well because glucose builds up in the eye, which temporarily changes its shape. Youre not going blind from diabetes, Dr. Cypess says he assures patients. In about six to eight weeks after your blood sugars are stabilized, youre not going to feel it anymore the eye will adjust.
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Itching And Yeast Infections
Excess sugar in the blood and urine provides food for yeast, which can lead to infection. Yeast infections tend to occur on warm, moist areas of the skin, such as the mouth, genital areas, and armpits.
The affected areas are usually itchy, but a person may also experience burning, redness, and soreness.
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Diabetes Type 2 Symptoms
Type 2 diabetes is a condition where your body either does not produces enough insulin or does not use it accordingly. Insulin is normally produced by the pancreas. A person having type 2 diabetes will experience a buildup of glucose in their blood due to its scarcity or misuse while its transfer to the cells. The high amount of glucose in the bloodstream can result in severe health concerns including nerves, eyes, blood vessels, heart, and kidneys. The diabetes type 2 symptoms might not occur for a long term until the situation has turned worse. It mainly arises after your glucose has been for a long time.
Symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes include:
- Yeast infection: Both men and women are at a higher risk of developing a yeast infection. Yeast occurs in the parts where there is plenty of it. Yeast infection will grow in moist and warm folds of skin. These areas of the body including under the breast, between fingers and toes, and in or around the private body parts.
- Slow-healing wounds or cuts: High blood sugar can affect the flow of blood in your body and cause nerve damage over time. It results in making your body incapable of healing wounds fast.
- Feeling of numbness or pain in legs or feet: Due to the nerve damage, your body might cause numbness or pain in the feet or legs.
Way Of Living Treatments
Some oral medicines as well as insulin could be should treat type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, handling your blood sugar via close tracking, diet, and also exercise are equally as crucial a part of therapy. While some people have the ability to efficiently control their kind 2 diabetes with diet plan and exercise alone, you ought to always check with your doctor concerning the treatment that is ideal for you.
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Diabetes Has Plenty Of Early Signs But Theyre Subtle Enough That You Might Not Notice
Its not like you wake up one day and all of a sudden youre thirsty, hungry, and all the time, says Melissa Joy Dobbins, RD, a certified diabetes educator in Illinois and a spokesperson for the American Association of Diabetes Educators. It picks up gradually. Indeed, most people are unaware that they have diabetes in its early or even middle phases, says Aaron Cypess, MD, assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and staff physician at Joslin Diabetes Center. Just because youre not keyed in doesnt mean youre immune from problems associated with diabetes, he adds.
The longer you go without controlling diabetes, the greater your risk for heart disease, kidney disease, amputation, blindness, and other serious complications. We recommend that people with risk factors for diabetes, such as a family history or being overweight, get evaluated on a regular basis, Dr. Cypess says. If youve been feeling off, talk to your doctor about getting a simple blood test that can diagnose the disease. And pay attention to these subtle diabetes signs and symptoms.
What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes aren’t always obvious and they can take a long time to develop. Sometimes, there are no symptoms. It’s important to remember that not everyone with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes develops these warning signs, and not everyone who has these symptoms necessarily has type 2 diabetes.
But kids or teens who develop type 2 diabetes may:
- Need to pee a lot. The kidneys respond to high levels of glucose in the blood by flushing out the extra glucose in urine . Kids with high blood sugar levels need to pee more often and make more pee.
- Drink a lot of liquids. Because they’re peeing so often and losing so much fluid, they can become very thirsty and drink a lot in an attempt to keep the levels of body water normal.
- Feel tired often. This is because the body can’t use glucose for energy properly.
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Type 2 Diabetes Is Marked By High Blood Sugar
More than 34 million people in the United States have type 2 diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . But one-fourth of those people dont know they have the condition.
Getting your annual physical, which typically involves testing your fasting blood sugar levels, is a great first-line screening for type 2 diabetes, no matter how healthy you think your blood sugar levels are, says Dawn Turner, RD, CDCES, a diabetes educator at Northwestern Medicine Delnor Hospital in Geneva, Illinois. If your physician finds your levels to be high, theyll evaluate your A1C, which is a two- to three-month average of your blood sugar levels. That said, based on your family history, age, and overall health, your doctor may go ahead and include an A1C test in your yearly workup.
To stay fully on top of your metabolic health, you need to listen to what your body is telling you. Because type 2 diabetes affects every cell in the body, the condition can cause a wide range of symptoms, says Fernando Ovalle, MD, the director of the multidisciplinary diabetes clinic at the University of Alabama in Birmingham. No two people with type 2 diabetes experience the condition in the exact same way, and the number of symptoms, as well as their severity, fluctuate from person to person. Dr. Ovalle notes that most symptoms of type 2 diabetes come on and progress gradually.
Youre Taking More Bathroom Breaks
When you have diabetes, your body becomes less efficient at breaking food down into sugar, so you have more sugar sitting in your bloodstream, says Dobbins. Your body gets rid of it by flushing it out in the urine. Thats why youre going to the bathroom a lot. Most patients arent necessarily aware of how often they use the bathroom, says Dr. Cypess. When we ask about it, we often hear, Oh yeah, I guess Im going more often than I used to,’ he says. But one red flag is whether the need to urinate keeps you up at night. Once or twice might be normal, but if its affecting your ability to sleep, that could be a symptom to pay attention to.
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