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Is Diabetes A Disease Or Disorder

Q: Can People With Diabetes Donate Blood

What is Diabetes?

Taking oral medications and most forms of insulin to maintain that control is okay, but if you have ever used bovine insulin made from cattle from the United Kingdom since 1980, you are ineligible, because of a concern about Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, also known as mad cow disease. If you’re in doubt about your blood sugar level or what insulin you have taken, check with your doctor.

T2d As An Inflammatory Condition

Studies investigating the relation between inflammation and T2D have coalesced sufficient data implicating the role of inflammation towards the development of insulin resistance and pathogenesis of T2D. Metabolism and immune system were conventionally regarded as two distinctive mechanisms governing nutrient disposal and body defense, respectively. Typically, little was known about the coordination and interplay between these two systems. However, present research has led to combining these distinct entities as studies perceive pathological activation of the immune system as a regulatory mechanism associated with multiple disorders underlying the metabolic syndrome. Potency of steroid hormones as immune suppressors and hyperglycemic inductors, metabolic alterations associated with pyrexia, wasting syndrome initiated by chronic infections and of late, markers of acute-phase response have been associated with insulin resistance, insulin secretion defects, T2D and vascular complications of T2D.

Diabetes Is Actually Five Separate Diseases Research Suggests

Health and science correspondent, BBC News

Scientists say diabetes is five separate diseases, and treatment could be tailored to each form.

Diabetes – or uncontrolled blood sugar levels – is normally split into type 1 and type 2.

But researchers in Sweden and Finland think the more complicated picture they have uncovered will usher in an era of personalised medicine for diabetes.

Experts said the study was a herald of the future of diabetes care but changes to treatment would not be immediate.

Diabetes affects about one in 11 adults worldwide and increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, blindness, kidney failure and limb amputation.

Type 1 diabetes is a disease of the immune system, which affects around 10% of people with the condition in the UK. It errantly attacks the body’s insulin factories so there is not enough of the hormone to control blood sugar levels.

Type 2 diabetes is largely seen as a disease of poor lifestyle as body fat can affect the way the insulin works.

The study, by Lund University Diabetes Centre in Sweden and the Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, looked at 14,775 patients including a detailed analysis of their blood.

The results, , showed the patients could be separated into five distinct clusters.

Prof Leif Groop, one of the researchers, told the BBC: “This is extremely important, we’re taking a real step towards precision medicine.

“In the ideal scenario, this is applied at diagnosis and we target treatment better.”

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What Leads To Diabetes

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different causes, but there are two factors that are important in both. You inherit a predisposition to the disease, then something in your environment triggers it.

Thats right: genes alone are not enough. One proof of this is identical twins. Identical twins have identical genes. Yet when one twin has type 1 diabetes, the other gets the disease, at most, only half the time. When one twin has type 2 diabetes, the other’s risk is three in four at most.

The Relationship Between Diabetes And Thyroid Disorder

Could The Type 2 Diabetes Be An Autoimmune Disease?

By Elisabeth Almekinder RN, BA, CDE

At the clinic today, a patient came in for an initial assessment for Diabetes Self-Management Education. She was taking thyroid medication along with her diabetes and other medications. She was not the first patient that I have seen lately who is taking thyroid medication. I was aware of the link between diabetes and thyroid disease, and had some basic information. I thought it would be interesting to look into the dynamics a little further. After all, the pancreas and the thyroid both fall within the endocrine system. Now lets take a look at why people with diabetes often seem to have thyroid disorder, and the reasons behind it.

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Can You Be Born With Diabetes Is It Genetic

You arent born with diabetes, but Type 1 diabetes usually appears in childhood. Prediabetes and diabetes develop slowly over time years. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy.Scientists do believe that genetics may play a role or contribute to the development of Type 1 diabetes. Something in the environment or a virus may trigger its development. If you have a family history of Type 1 diabetes, you are at higher risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. If you have a family history of prediabetes, Type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes, youre at increased risk of developing prediabetes, Type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes.

How Does Diabetes Affect The Body

When someone has diabetes, their body cant maintain healthy levels of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a form of sugar which is the main source of energy for our bodies. Unhealthy levels of glucose in the blood can lead to long term and short term health complications.

For our bodies to work properly we need to convert sugars from food into energy. Sugars from food are converted into glucose. A hormone called insulin is essential for the conversion of glucose into energy. In people with diabetes, insulin is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body. When people with diabetes eat foods that contain sugars or starches, such as breads, cereals, fruit and starchy vegetables and sweets, it cant be converted into energy and the level of glucose in their blood rises and is harmful to them.

Instead of being turned into energy the glucose stays in the blood resulting in high blood glucose levels. After eating, the glucose is carried around your body in your blood. Your blood glucose level is called glycaemia. Blood glucose levels can be monitored and managed through self care and treatment.

Three things you need to know about diabetes:

  • It is not one condition- there are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes
  • All types of diabetes are complex and require daily care and management
  • Diabetes does not discriminate, anyone can develop diabetes

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Worse When Theyre Together

Psychiatric disorders and diabetes are all independently associated with dying at a younger age. On average, people with severe mental illness die 17 years younger than everybody else, which is a massive mortality gap, Doherty says. And people with diabetes generally live 7.5 years less than those without the disease, with even greater effects among those who get diabetes at a younger age. But having both can be particularly harmful.

When people who have pre-existing mental illnesses develop diabetes, their outcomes are much worse, Doherty says. She points to a study of patients at a London clinic that treats diabetes complications. When researchers evaluated all clinic patients for depression, they found that those with major depression were more than three times as likely to die after 18 months than those without major depression.

In a recent population study of more than 250,000 people in Sweden, Fazel found a similar increase in mortality among patients with psychiatric disorders who also had chronic conditions such as respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. He found that the risk of dying within five years increased dramatically for people with diabetes when they also had a psychiatric disorder, such as depression.

Make Preventing Heart Disease A Priority

Diabetes and Kidney Disease

Diabetes and heart disease is a serious combination. Reducing the risk of heart disease should be a priority for anyone living with diabetes.

Fortunately, good diabetes management can reduce risks of all of the complications of diabetes, including the most serious-heart disease.

Adapted from an article prepared by the Canadian Diabetes Association. This article appeared originally on the Canadian Health Network Web site and has been edited for publication by the Public Health Agency of Canada.


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Are Thyroid And Diabetes Related

Now that you know most of what there is to know about thyroid disease, lets talk about the link that exist between thyroid disease and diabetes. The pancreas and the thyroid are both in the endocrine system. The following is the prevalence of thyroid disease in people with diabetes, and breaks the numbers down by the type of thyroid disorder:

Thyroid disease in diabetes:

Postpartum thyroiditis: 11%

Diagnosing Psychiatric Disorders Among Patients With Diabetes

One of the biggest challenges in management of psychiatric disorders among those suffering from diabetes is the low rates of detection. Up to 45% of the cases of mental disorder and severe psychological distress go undetected among patients being treated for diabetes. This is a result of both patient and physician-related factors. Physicians should be aware of the possible co-morbid psychiatric disorders likely to be associated with diabetes. As highlighted in the subsequent sections psychiatric co-morbidity is not uncommon in those suffering from diabetes. Consequently these patients should be regularly screened for common psychiatric disorders. Brief instruments such as patient health questionnaire and symptom checklist-90 are sensitive, time efficient, and well-validated screening tools for common psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety. Scales such as Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale could be used to further quantify the severity of anxiety and depression in this population. It is imperative to screen those suffering with diabetes for emergence of psychiatric disorders and vice versa. Since there could be some overlap between the physical features of diabetes and psychiatric disorders it is important to look for the behavioral and cognitive features of psychiatric disorders.

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How Insulin Problems Develop

Doctors do not know the exact causes of type 1 diabetes. However, insulin resistance, which can lead to type 2 diabetes, has clearer causes.

Insulin allows the glucose from a persons food to access the cells in their body to supply energy. Insulin resistance is usually a result of the following cycle:

  • A person has genes or an environment that make it more likely for them to be unable to produce enough insulin to cover how much glucose, or sugar, they eat.
  • The body tries to make extra insulin to process the excess blood sugar.
  • The pancreas cannot keep up with the increased demands, and the excess blood sugar starts to circulate in the blood, causing damage.
  • Over time, insulin becomes less effective at introducing glucose to cells, and blood sugar levels continue to rise.
  • With type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance takes place gradually. This is why doctors often recommend making lifestyle changes in an attempt to slow or reverse this cycle.

    often recommend making lifestyle changes to support weight management and overall health.

    A doctor may refer a person living with diabetes or prediabetes to a nutritionist. A specialist can help people living with diabetes lead an active, balanced lifestyle and manage the condition.

    Steps a person can take to stay healthy with diabetes include:

    Some people can also take steps to reduce their body mass index if needed, which can help those with type 2 diabetes manage the condition without medication.

    How Does Diabetes Lead To Amputation

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    Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to poor blood flow . Without oxygen and nutrients , you are more prone to the development of cuts and sores that can lead to infections that cant fully heal. Areas of your body that are farthest away from your heart are more likely to experience the effects of poor blood flow. So areas of your body like your toes, feet, legs and fingers are more likely to be amputated if infection develops and healing is poor.

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    Schizophrenia And Other Psychotic Disorders

    Association of psychotic disorders and diabetes is well established. Overall risk of type 2 diabetes in people with schizophrenia is between two and four times that in the general population. Family history of type 2 diabetes is significantly higher even among the first-degree relatives of patients of schizophrenia. Similarly, a positive family history may increase the risk of developing diabetes in individuals with schizophrenia up to threefold. It has been shown that people with diabetes and schizophrenia have higher mortality rates than individuals with diabetes alone. Additionally, the presence of type 2 diabetes is associated with increased mortality risk in patients with schizophrenia.

    Testing For Endocrine Disorders

    If you have an endocrine disorder, your doctor may refer you to a specialist called an endocrinologist. An endocrinologist is specially trained in problems with the endocrine system.

    The symptoms of an endocrine disorder vary widely and depend on the specific gland involved. However, most people with endocrine disease complain of fatigue and weakness.

    Blood and urine tests to check your hormone levels can help your doctors determine if you have an endocrine disorder. Imaging tests may be done to help locate or pinpoint a nodule or tumor.

    Treatment of endocrine disorders can be complicated, as a change in one hormone level can throw off another. Your doctor or specialist may order routine blood work to check for problems or to determine if your medication or treatment plan needs to be adjusted.

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    Other Possible Complications Of Diabetes

    Numerous complications are associated with diabetes mellitus. They include:

    Diabetic neuropathy Nerve damage affects nearly 60 percent of people with diabetes. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy is the most prevalent within that group. With this form of neuropathy, the most distant nerve fibers from the central nervous system malfunction first. It usually starts in the feet feel tingling or numbness at the bottom of the feet, and then may slowly progress upward in the foot to the ankle and the legs, says Happel.

    The pattern is usually symmetrical, affecting limbs on both sides. Sometimes, a burning sensation takes hold, which Happel says is sometimes mistaken by patients for athletes foot. Eventually, numbness and then profound loss of sensation can set in, along with the loss of reflexes.

    Amputations Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy Hypoglycemia

    Symptoms of hypoglycemia include jitteriness or shakiness, blurred vision, fatigue, dizziness, disorientation, a fast or irregular heartbeat, irritability, weakness, or extreme hunger. Severely low blood sugar may result in unconsciousness and seizures.

    Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome

    But people with any type of diabetes are at risk for this complication, especially if theyre insulin-dependent. Noncompliance isnt the only trigger, either sometimes a person who develops HHNS is fighting another illness that has weakened and dehydrated them, says Happel.

    Link Between Er Stress And Inflammation In T2d

    What is diabetes mellitus? | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

    Activation of ER stress and the UPR forms a convincing hypothesis for the induction of inflammatory pathways in T2D. ER stress in T2D occurs by virtue of nutrient overload, hypoxia and accumulation of unfolded proteins in metabolic organs. Under normal conditions, the flux of proteins through ER is high, and in the setting of insulin resistance or glucotoxicity, a prolonged state of insulin need generates ER stress.

    Three ER localized sensors control the activation of ER stress and UPR :4): the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase -like ER kinase inositol-requiring kinase 1 and activating transcription factor 6 . ER stress by protein overload or accumulation of unfolded proteins causes dissociation of GRP78, and the subsequent binding to unfolded proteins in ER prevents their transport to cis Golgi.

    Mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress. ER: Endoplasmic-reticulum ATF6: Activating transcription factor 6 PERK: Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase -like ER kinase IRE1: Inositol-requiring kinase 1 IL: Interleukin MCP: Monocyte chemoattractant protein TNF-: Tumor necrosis factor JNK: c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase NF-B: Nuclear factor B.

    Prominently, UPR activation stimulates inflammatory stress kinases like JNK and IKK and their critical downstream transcriptional targets activator protein 1 and NF-B, respectively.

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    What Are The Medical Risks Associated With Bulimia And Bed

    Both physical and psychological complications can result from bulimia and BED. Physical complications include:

    • Higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes
    • Worsening diabetes control, and an increased risk of complications, in those who already have the disease
    • Joint problems

    Bipolar Disorder And Diabetes Mellitus: Do These Disorders Share Common Disease Mechanisms

    The results of our study suggest a relationship between BD and diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we reviewed the supporting evidence for shared disease mechanisms based on the broader literature.

    A common explanation for the association between BD and diabetes mellitus focuses on the diabetogenic side effects of psychotropic medications, but evidence is also increasing for a medication-independent association . While diabetes mellitus in patients with BD has been associated with unintended medication effects , antipsychotics are more strongly linked to incident diabetes mellitus than other treatments, such as mood stabilizers and antidepressants. Among the antipsychotics, olanzapine and clozapine have been most strongly linked to diabetes mellitus, because they block insulin secretion as antagonists of acetylcholine muscarinic 3 receptors in the -cells of the pancreas . A sedentary lifestyle has been claimed as another contributing factor to the increased risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with BD . However, even after accounting for antipsychotic exposure and lifestyle factors, the higher incidence of diabetes mellitus among patients with BD remains unexplained, especially in treatment-naïve patients .

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    What Are The Acute Complications Of Diabetes

  • Severely elevated blood sugar levels due to an actual lack of insulin or a relative deficiency of insulin.
  • Abnormally low blood sugar levels due to too much insulin or other glucose-lowering medications.
  • Acute complications of type 2 diabetes

    In patients with type 2 diabetes, stress, infection, and medications can also lead to severely elevated blood sugar levels. Accompanied by dehydration, severe blood sugar elevation in patients with type 2 diabetes can lead to an increase in blood osmolality . This condition can worsen and lead to coma . A hyperosmolar coma usually occurs in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Like diabetic ketoacidosis, a hyperosmolar coma is a medical emergency. Immediate treatment with intravenous fluid and insulin is important in reversing the hyperosmolar state. Unlike patients with type 1 diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes do not generally develop ketoacidosis solely on the basis of their diabetes. Since in general, type 2 diabetes occurs in an older population, concomitant medical conditions are more likely to be present, and these patients may actually be sicker overall. The complication and death rates from hyperosmolar coma is thus higher than in diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Blood glucose is essential for the proper functioning of brain cells. Therefore, low blood sugar can lead to central nervous system symptoms such as:


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