Who Is At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes
Many Americans are at risk for type 2 diabetes. Your chances of getting it depend on a combination of risk factors such as your genes and lifestyle. The risk factors include:
- Having prediabetes, which means you have blood sugar levels that are higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes
- Being overweight or having obesity
- Being age 45 or older
- A family history of diabetes
- Being African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander
- Having acanthosis nigricans, a skin condition in which your skin becomes dark and thick, especially around your neck or armpits
Local Authorities And Clinical Commissioning Groups
Identify and increase uptake to the programme
CCGs and local authority commissioners should work with their local voluntary sector to raise awareness and commission tailored lifestyle interventions to high risk BME communities.
NHS commissioners should work alongside LAs to increase uptake and identify those who could benefit from a NHS Health Check, as it includes a diabetes filter that pinpoints those at high risk of developing the condition.
CCGs and LAs will need to integrate the NHS DPP into the local care pathway, and work with providers to manage this process of referrals, including appropriate data processing and data sharing agreements where required.
NHS commissioners can use the NHS RightCare Diabetes Pathway which shows the core components of an optimal diabetes service, including risk detection using the NHS DPP.
Provide and deliver lifestyle interventions
Commissioners have a key role to play in ensuring that patients identified through the programme are offered lifestyle advice to achieve:
- a healthy weight
- dietary recommendations
- CMO physical activity recommendations
It is anticipated that the NHS DPP will encourage the uptake of other resources which should be made available in the local community such as:
- exercise classes
- swimming offers
- weight management programmes
Track Your Progress: Watch Yourself Succeed With A Few Easy Steps
The best way to stick with your goals and keep building on them is to measure them! Research shows that people who keep track of their food, activity, and weight reach their goals more often than people who dont.
There are lots of free tracking apps for your phone or tablet. Good old-fashioned pen and paper work too. Some people swear by taking photos of everything they eat and drink to keep them accountable.
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How To Help Kids Avoid Type 2 Diabetes
To prevent Type 2 diabetes, or to keep it from getting worse, there are four main things we recommend our young patients and their families do:
What Are The First Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
Many people with type 2 diabetes do not experience any symptoms at first and it may go undiagnosed for years. If they do have symptoms, these may include:
- being very thirsty
- having cuts that heal slowly
Over time, diabetes can lead to complications, which can then cause other symptoms.
Blood glucose testing is important for detecting pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes before complications arise.
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Type 2 Diabetes In Kids Is Increasing
Many reports focus on the number of adults in the United States who have diabetes. What people arent talking so much about is in addition to the increasing numbers, the age at which its being diagnosed is increasingly younger. Type 2 diabetes used to be considered adult diabetes, and Type 1 diabetes was considered juvenile diabetes because of the age of onset and diagnosis.
But around 2008, Texas flipped the script. For the first time, the estimated number of kids and adolescents with Type 2 diabetes in Texas matched or exceeded the number of kids who have Type 1 diabetes. In 2012, almost 1 percent of high school students in North Texas had diabetes, and one in 10 had pre-diabetes. Its a dramatic trend of more and younger cases.
These young people are now left to deal with a lifetime of cardiovascular risk that comes with Type 2 diabetes. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the more absolute years of life are lost. If youre diagnosed as a teen or young adult, you may have, on average, 10 or 15 years of life lost.
This crisis is a signal for parents in the Metroplex to take a proactive role in monitoring not only their own risk but also that of their kids. Its also a sign that we, as cardiologists, need to become more aggressive with preventive care, starting at an earlier age.
How Can I Prevent Or Delay Getting Type 2 Diabetes
If you are at risk for diabetes, you may be able to prevent or delay getting it. Most of the things that you need to do involve having a healthier lifestyle. So if you make these changes, you will get other health benefits as well. You may lower your risk of other diseases, and you will probably feel better and have more energy. The changes are:
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
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People Who Can Help You Manage Type 2 Diabetes
Cholesterol and blood screening Your doctor will draw a blood sample to check your cholesterol, and see if your blood pressure is within a healthy range. High blood pressure and cholesterol increase the risk of heart disease, kidney disease, stroke, and vision problems.
Kidney screening Youll provide a urine sample to see if theres protein in your urine. Protein can be a sign of kidney damage.
How Can I Prevent Diabetes
Because of the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes, you can do a great deal to reduce your chance of developing the disease by slimming down if you are overweight. This is especially true if diabetes runs in your family.
In fact, studies have shown that exercise and a healthy diet can prevent the development of type 2 diabetes in people with pre-diabetes — a condition that often develops prior to full-blown type 2 diabetes.
The medications acarbose , exenatide , metformin , and pioglitazone have also been shown to be effective in delaying or preventing type 2 diabetes in those at risk.
In someone who already has diabetes, exercise and a nutritionally balanced diet can greatly limit the effects of both types 1 and 2 diabetes on your body. In diabetics, stopping smoking is one of the best ways to help prevent the damaging effects of diabetes. If you smoke, quit smoking dramatically increases the risk of heart disease, particularly for people with diabetes.
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Make Healthy Food Choices
Healthy eating isnt about sticking to strict diets or depriving yourself of the foods you love. Rather, its about eating a balanced range of foods that help you feel great, have more energy, improve your outlook and help you achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Find out more about healthy eating.
After Diagnosis With Prediabetes
If you are diagnosed with prediabetes following tips from the CDC-led National Diabetes Prevention Program can help you make lifestyle changes that stick. The program has helped people lover their risk of developing type 2 diabetes by nearly 60% .
Contact a health professional immediately if you are feeling general symptoms of diabetes including:
- Increased hunger
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Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Prevented
Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes can sometimes be prevented. Excessive weight gain, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle are all things that put a person at risk for type 2 diabetes.
In the past, type 2 diabetes usually happened only in adults. But now, more kids and teens are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, due to the rapidly increasing number of overweight kids.
Although kids and teens might be able to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes by managing their weight and increasing physical activity, other risk factors for type 2 diabetes can’t be changed. Kids with one or more family members with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for the disease, and some ethnic and racial groups are more likely to developing it.
How Doctors Diagnose Diabetes Complications
Blood sugar testing This test evaluates the amount of sugar in your bloodstream and can help your doctor determine whether your current diabetes treatment is working.
Retina exam Eyedrops are used to dilate or widen your pupils, and then your doctor uses a machine to take a picture of your retina. This test assesses the health of your eyes and can help diagnose diabetic retinopathy.
Foot examination Your doctor examines your feet for signs of infection, nerve damage, and poor circulation.
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Drink Water As Your Primary Beverage
Water is by far the most natural beverage you can drink.
Whats more, sticking with water most of the time helps you avoid beverages that are high in sugar, preservatives and other questionable ingredients.
Sugary beverages like soda and punch have been linked to an increased risk of both type 2 diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes of adults .
LADA is a form of type 1 diabetes that occurs in people over 18 years of age. Unlike the acute symptoms seen with type 1 diabetes in childhood, LADA develops slowly, requiring more treatment as the disease progresses .
One large observational study looked at the diabetes risk of 2,800 people.
Those who consumed more than two servings of sugar-sweetened beverages per day had a 99% increased risk of developing LADA and a 20% increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes .
Researchers of one study on the effects of sweet drinks on diabetes stated that neither artificially sweetened beverages nor fruit juice were good beverages for diabetes prevention .
One 24-week study showed that overweight adults who replaced diet sodas with water while following a weight loss program experienced a decrease in insulin resistance and lower fasting blood sugar and insulin levels .
Drinking water instead of other beverages may help control blood sugar and insulin levels, thereby reducing the risk of diabetes.
Fasting Plasma Glucose Test
A second blood test used to diagnose prediabetes is a fasting plasma glucose test. This is normally the first test healthcare providers use because it renders immediate results. A blood sample is taken after you fast for at least eight hours or overnight. The interpretation includes:
- A fasting plasma glucose level below 100 milligrams per deciliter is considered normal.
- A fasting plasma glucose level from 100 to 125 mg/dL is considered prediabetes. This result is sometimes called impaired fasting glucose.
- A fasting plasma glucose level of 126 mg/dL or higher indicates type 2 diabetes.
An oral glucose tolerance test or a random blood sugar test are also sometimes, but less commonly, used to diagnose prediabetes.
Certain medications can affect your blood sugar levels. Before your test, tell your healthcare provider all the medications that youre using, including herbal, prescription, and over-the-counter medications.
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Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Cured
Type 2 diabetes cannot be cured, but people with the condition may be able to manage their type 2 diabetes through lifestyle changes and, if needed, diabetes medications to control blood sugar levels.
Its also emerging that some people who are overweight or obese can put their type 2 diabetes into remission by losing a substantial amount of weight, especially early in their diagnosis. Their blood sugar measurements return to healthy levels below the diabetes range. Its not a permanent solution, and diabetes could come back, so it needs to be maintained. However, many people were still in remission 2 years later. This should only be tried under the supervision of your doctor.
Medicines For Type 2 Diabetes
There are many types of diabetes medications and they work in different ways to control blood glucose. If you have diabetes, over time it can change, meaning your medications may need to change too. For example, you may need more than one medication to control your blood glucose levels. Some people with type 2 diabetes may eventually need insulin to manage their condition.
If you are living with type 2 diabetes, you can join the National Diabetes Services Scheme to access support services, including free or subsidised products. Visit Diabetes Australia for information and resources.
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Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes
Your chances of developing type 2 diabetes depend on a combination of risk factors such as your genes and lifestyle. Although you cant change risk factors such as family history, age, or ethnicity, you can change lifestyle risk factors around eating, physical activity, and weight. These lifestyle changes can affect your chances of developing type 2 diabetes.
Read about risk factors for type 2 diabetes below and see which ones apply to you. Taking action on the factors you can change can help you delay or prevent type 2 diabetes.
You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you
Prevent Type 2 Diabetes In Kids
Theres a growing type 2 diabetes problem in our young people. But parents can help turn the tide with healthy changes that are good for the whole family.
Until recently, young children and teens almost never got type 2 diabetes, which is why it used to be called adult-onset diabetes. Now, about one-third of American youth are overweight, a problem closely related to the increase in kids with type 2 diabetes, some as young as 10 years old.
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If I Had Gestational Diabetes When I Was Pregnant How Can I Lower My Chances Of Developing Type 2 Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy. Most of the time, gestational diabetes goes away after your baby is born. Even if your gestational diabetes goes away, you still have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 to 10 years. Your child may also be more likely to become obese and develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Making healthy choices helps the whole family and may protect your child from becoming obese or developing diabetes.
Here are steps you should take for yourself and your child if you had gestational diabetes:
- Get tested for diabetes 6 to 12 weeks after your baby is born. If your blood glucose is still high, you may have type 2 diabetes. If your blood glucose is normal, you should get tested every 3 years to see if you have developed type 2 diabetes.
- Be more active and make healthy food choices to get back to a healthy weight.
- Breastfeed your baby. Breastfeeding gives your baby the right balance of nutrients and helps you burn calories.
- Ask your doctor if you should take the diabetes drug metformin to help prevent type 2 diabetes.1
Am I At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes
Many things can put you at risk for type 2 diabetes. For example, you may be at risk if you:
- Have prediabetes
- Are overweight or have obesity
- Have a parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes
- Are African American, Alaska Native, Native American, Asian American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander
- Have high blood pressure or high LDL cholesterol
- Are physically active less than 3 times a week
Some risk factors only affect women. You’re also at risk for type 2 diabetes if you:
- Have had gestational diabetes
- Have given birth to a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds
- Have polycystic ovary syndrome
Learn more about the risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
What is prediabetes?
If you have prediabetes, the glucose levels in your blood are higher than normal but not high enough to mean you have type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes and other serious health problems, like heart disease and stroke.
The good news about prediabetes is that healthy changes, like losing weight and getting enough physical activity, can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. Find out more about prediabetes.
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