Body Composition And Food Intake Measurement
The BM was measured every 4 weeks, between 8 am and 12 pm. Diet intake was calculated by the difference in weight between the amount of food offered subtracting the amount of food remaining. The energy intake per rat was calculated as: food consumption × Et . To assess body composition, the fed animals underwent anesthesia using an intra-peritoneal injection with ketamine and xylazine , before euthanasia. Rats were later placed in prone position to be scanned using the DXA-Dual Range Emission Densitometry-between 8 am and 12 pm . Thus, the body fat , FM, fat-free mass were obtained. Image analysis was performed using the QDR 4500 software .
Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
The symptoms of diabetes include feeling very thirsty, passing more urine than usual, and feeling tired all the time.
The symptoms occur because some or all of the glucose stays in your blood and isn’t used as fuel for energy. Your body tries to get rid of the excess glucose in your urine.
The main symptoms of type 2 diabetes are:
- urinating more often than usual, particularly at night
- itchiness around the genital area, or regular bouts of thrush
- cuts or wounds that heal slowly
- blurred vision caused by the lens of the eye becoming dry
The signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes are usually obvious and develop very quickly, often over a few weeks.
These signs and symptoms aren’t always as obvious, however, and it’s often diagnosed during a routine check-up.
This is because they are often mild and develop gradually over a number of years. This means you may have type 2 diabetes for many years without realising it.
Early diagnosis and treatment for type 2 diabetes is very important as it may reduce your risk of developing complications later on.
How To Tell If You’re Obese
The most widely used method to check if you’re a healthy weight is body mass index .
BMI is a measure of whether you’re a healthy weight for your height. You can use the NHS BMI healthy weight calculator to work out your score.
For most adults, a BMI of:
- 18.5 to 24.9 means you’re a healthy weight
- 25 to 29.9 means you’re overweight
- 30 to 39.9 means you’re obese
- 40 or above means you’re severely obese
BMI is not used to diagnose obesity because people who are very muscular can have a high BMI without much fat.
But for most people, BMI is a useful indication of whether they’re a healthy weight.
A better measure of excess fat is waist size, which can be used as an additional measure in people who are overweight or moderately obese .
Generally, men with a waist size of 94cm or more and women with a waist size of 80cm or more are more likely to develop obesity-related health problems.
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How Obesity Contributes To Diabetes
People with a BMI above 30 are 80 times more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes than people with a BMI under 22. Why is this? If we look more closely, it isnt necessarily the weight itself that contributes to diabetes, but where it is stored in the body. Body fat can be classified according to two locations visceral or subcutaneous.
Visceral fat is stored inside the belly area and wraps around the walls of internal organs, which means it cant easily be removed by typical diets or exercise.
Subcutaneous fat is found right beneath the skin and is what you can physically measure when taking your waist circumference the so-called love handles.
Visceral fat is the type that increases the risk of developing serious health problems such as diabetes. While subcutaneous fat isnt as dangerous in general, when it comes to the belly area, both types of fat are present, so a growing belly can be a sign that one or both types of fat are increasing in the stomach region, raising your risk for diabetes.
Ultimately, the weight around the midsection is the type we need to watch when it comes to preventing or controlling diabetes. People with excess abdominal fat are much more prone to developing Type 2 diabetes because abdominal fat cells release inflammatory chemicals that reduce the bodys ability to incorporate and utilize insulin.
It isnt just where body fat is stored, but also the type of fat being stored. There are two kinds of adipose tissues.
Diabte Li L’obsit Dans Le Monde Arabe : Analyse
RÉSUMÉ Le monde arabe connait une épidémie d’obésité et de diabète de type 2. La présente analyse récapitule les facteurs pathologiques majeurs liant l’obésité au diabète, en se concentrant sur les données épidémiologiques actuelles relatives aux patients diabétiques obèses dans le monde arabe, l’étiologie de la maladie et les déterminants génétiques du diabète et de l’obésité. Les données relatives à l’augmentation de la prévalence de l’obésité et du diabète de type 2 chez les enfants appartenant à un groupe ethnique arabe sont alarmantes. Des études similaires ont identifié plusieurs variantes génétiques chez les Arabes atteints de diabète lié à l’obésité. Par exemple, des variantes du gène ADIPOQ sont associées à une obésité et un diabète dans plusieurs pays arabes. Des lacunes existent dans nos informations sur le diabète et l’obésité dans les populations arabes concernant les seuils propres aux ethnies pour le diagnostic et le traitement du diabète. Des études d’association pangénomique supplémentaires dans des populations arabes diabétiques et obèses pourraient accroître notre compréhension de la physiopathologie et de la prévention et permettraient de faire reculer la maladie.
1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada .Received: 05/02/15 accepted: 29/04/15
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Being Overweight Or Obese
You’re more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you’re overweight or obese with a body mass index of 30 or more.
Fat around your tummy particularly increases your risk. This is because it releases chemicals that can upset the body’s cardiovascular and metabolic systems.
Measuring your waist is a quick way of assessing your diabetes risk. This is a measure of abdominal obesity, which is a particularly high-risk form of obesity.
Women have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes if their waist measures 80cm or more.
Asian men with a waist size of 89cm or more have a higher risk, as do white or black men with a waist size of 94cm or more.
Exercising regularly and reducing your body weight by about 5% could reduce your risk of getting diabetes by more than 50%.
Read about measuring your waist size
Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes
Four of the main risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes are:
- age being over the age of 40
- genetics having a close relative with the condition, such as a parent, brother or sister
- weight being overweight or obese
- ethnicity being of south Asian, Chinese, African-Caribbean or black African origin, even if you were born in the UK
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Genes And Environmentalthe Aetiology Of Obesity
Obesity is underpinned by positive energy balance believed to be driven by hyperphagia arising as a consequence of increased hunger, decreased satiety or both. Pathology of the subcortical areas of the brain that control appetite is influenced by environmental factors superimposed on genetically determined susceptibility. Although fatness runs in families, it has been difficult to separate the influences of nature versus nurture. Heritable factors account for approximately 70% of the difference in BMI in adult life . Body composition, distribution of fat and visceral fat deposition after periods of overeating share a similar genetic component . Environmental factors include marketing, advertising, increasing portion sizes, accessibility and availability of calorie dense foods and increased automation, all of which have contributed to increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure .
How Do You Test For Type 2 Diabetes
There are a variety of blood tests that may indicate whether you have type 2 diabetes. Let’s take a look at each test and see what different results could mean for you and your health.
Blood sugar level chart
- Slow healing of cuts and bruises
If your blood sugar level measures from 100 to 125, you have impaired fasting glucose, and this may be an indication that you have pre-diabetes. If your blood sugar level is above 200 mg/dL, with symptoms of diabetes , a second test may not be necessary to reach the diagnosis.
Random blood sugar test
This test is done without any special preparation, such as fasting overnight. Even if you’ve recently eaten and your blood sugar level is at its peak, the level shouldn’t be above 200 mg/dL. If it is and you also have symptoms of type 2 diabetes, you can expect a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
Oral sugar tolerance test
This test requires you to visit a lab or a healthcare professional after at least an eight-hour fast. At the office or lab, you will drink about eight ounces of a sweet liquid that contains a lot of sugar . Your blood sugar level will be measured before you drink the liquid, then after one hour and again after two hours. If your blood sugar level is 200 mg/dL or above after two hours, you may have diabetes.
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The Global Challenge Of Obesity
Obesity represents one of the greatest public health concerns worldwide, being considered as an important risk factor for the development of chronic or non-communicable diseases . In addition, its economic implications also pose a serious warning for sanitary authorities . According to the last updated records from the World Health Organization , approximately 40% of people around the world are overweight, whereas 13% are obese. The prevalence of this condition has importantly increased over the years, in such a way as to almost triplicate from the 1970s, importantly affecting women . It is estimated that, in the world more people are presently overweight than underweight, and this situation is not only reported in western societies but also in developing countries, due to the lower cost of the obesogenic products . In Europe, it is expected that by 2025 up to 20% of the inhabitants could develop obesity, but a higher percentage cannot be discarded . Similarly, in Spain, recent data sustain that one in two adults are presently overweight, and around the 15% of them are obese . Childhood obesity also represents a global threat, even more worrying because of its association with an increasing morbidity and mortality from early ages . Overall, these statistics show the impact of obesity nowadays, and the necessity of deepening understanding in this important condition.
Weight Loss Impact On Morbidity And Mortality
The life expectancy of a severely obese person is reduced by an estimated 520 years . A large cohort prospective study and other retrospective cohort studies suggested that bariatric surgery reduces mortality considerably. In the Swedish Obese Subjects study, during a period of up to 15 years, the overall mortality was 30.7% lower among the bariatric group compared with control subjects, and the most common causes of death were myocardial infarction and cancer with much of surgery-induced reductions in the latter accounted for by diminished incidence of female cancers, particularly endometrial cancer .
In a large retrospective cohort study, during a mean follow-up of 7.1 years, adjusted long-term mortality from any cause in the surgery group decreased by 40% compared with the control group. The cause-specific mortality rate in the surgery group decreased by 56% for coronary artery disease, by 92% for diabetes, and by 60% for cancer .
Moreover, Flum and Dellinger reported a 33% reduction in the rate of death due to any cause after gastric bypass surgery as compared with the rate among control subjects after a mean follow-up of 4.4 years . Finally, Christou et al., at a mean follow-up of 2.6 years, reported that among patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery, the rate of death due to any cause decreased by 89% compared with control subjects . So, weight loss associated with decrease morbidity and mortality.
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Categorising Of Body Weight
There are three measures of obesity often used in epidemiological studies: body mass index , waist circumference and waist to hip circumference ratio . The most commonly used is BMI which equals the ratio of weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared . The classes of BMI reported by the WHO are, 18.524.9 kg/m2 for normal, 25.029.9 kg/m2 for overweight and > 30 kg/m2 for obesity .
How Many Cancer Cases May Be Due To Obesity
A population-based study using BMI and cancer incidence data from the GLOBOCAN project estimated that, in 2012 in the United States, about 28,000 new cases of cancer in men and 72,000 in women were due to overweight or obesity . The percentage of cases attributed to overweight or obesity varied widely for different cancer types but was as high as 54% for gallbladder cancer in women and 44% for esophageal adenocarcinoma in men.
A 2016 study summarizing worldwide estimates of the fractions of different cancers attributable to overweight/obesity reported that, compared with other countries, the United States had the highest fractions attributable to overweight/obesity for colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and postmenopausal breast cancer .
Ongoing Efforts To Combat Obesity
The prevalence of obesity in Arab populations is a major concern. In addition to the risk of developing diabetes, obesity increases the risk of hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancers. In fact, these complications represent about 50% of all deaths in the Arab region .
Obesity-linked diabetes is a preventable disease, and decreasing body weight reduces the risk of T2DM and its complications . Such findings encouraged decision-makers in different Arab nations to collaborate in trying to limit the rise in obesity-related diabetes.
The Arab Taskforce for Obesity and Physical Activity developed a 5-year strategy to combat obesity , and first presented this at the Third Arab Conference on Obesity held in Bahrain in 2010 where there were contributions from 14 Arab countries. The proposed strategy aimed to suit all Arab nations in a manner that was consistent with the diversity of socioeconomic status and cultures across the region. The primary goals of the strategy are to:
promote healthy dietary habits and increase physical activities to reduce the incidence of overweight and obesity
reduce risk factors for noncommunicable diseases resulting from obesity, poor dietary habits and lack of physical activity
raise awareness about the complications of obesity and the overall benefits of increasing physical activity in preventing complications
conduct research related to nutrition and the risk factors for obesity and
What Research Is Being Done On Obesity And Cancer
Several areas of research are exploring mechanisms that link obesity and cancer . One research area involves understanding the role of the microbes that live in the human gastrointestinal tract in both type 2 diabetes and obesity. Both conditions are associated with dysbiosis, an imbalance in the collection of these microbes. For example, the gut microbiomes of obese people are different from, and less diverse than, those of non-obese people. Imbalances in the gut microbiota are associated with inflammation, altered metabolism, and genotoxicity, which may in turn be related to cancer. Experiments in mice show that the microbiome may influence the efficacy of some types of cancer treatment, particular immunotherapy . Researchers are beginning to think about ways to change the microbiota of cancer patients to improve their outcomes.
Another area of investigation is the role of insulinreceptorsignaling in cancer. Many cancer cells express elevated levels of IR-A, a form of the insulin receptor that has a high affinity for insulin and related growth factors. Researchers are investigating how these factors contribute to metabolic disease and cancer and which may be useful targets for therapeutic interventions to prevent obesity-related cancers.
Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2013 309:71-82.
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Diet Physical Activity And Behavioral Therapy
Among patients with both type 2 diabetes and overweight or obesity who also have inadequate glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control and/or other obesity-related medical conditions, lifestyle changes that result in modest and sustained weight loss produce clinically meaningful reductions in blood glucose, A1C, and triglycerides . Greater weight loss produces even greater benefits, including reductions in blood pressure, improvements in LDL and HDL cholesterol, and reductions in the need for medications to control blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipids , and may result in achievement of glycemic goals in the absence of glucose-lowering agent use in some patients . For a more detailed discussion of lifestyle management approaches and recommendations see Section 5 Facilitating Behavior Change and Well-being to Improve Health Outcomes . For a detailed discussion of nutrition interventions please also refer to Nutrition Therapy for Adults with Diabetes or Prediabetes: A Consensus Report .
Disruption In Fat Metabolism
Obesity is also thought to trigger changes to the bodys metabolism These changes cause fat tissue to release fat molecules into the blood, which can affect insulin responsive cells and lead to reduced insulin sensitivity.
Another theory put forward by scientists into how obesity could lead to type 2 diabetes is that obesity causes prediabetes, a metabolic condition that almost always develops into type 2 diabetes.
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Anthropometric Measures And Classification Of Obesity And Central Obesity
Measured weight, height and waist circumference were collected from each subject. This piece of information was used in our study to calculate BMI /height ) for each individual, and then was used to classify his/her weight status. BMI 25 was used to define overweight and BMI of 30 for obesity. To define central obesity, the waist circumference cut-points of 102cm for men and 88cm for women were used.