What Causes Hyperglycemia In People With Diabetes
- The dose of insulin or oral diabetes medication that you are taking is not the most helpful dose for your needs.
- Your body isnt using your natural insulin effectively .
- The amount of carbohydrates you are eating or drinking is not balanced with the amount of insulin your body is able to make or the amount of insulin you inject.
- You are less active than usual.
- Physical stress is affecting you.
- Emotional stress is affecting you.
- You are taking steroids for another condition.
- The dawn phenomenon is affecting you.
Other possible causes
- Pancreatic diseases such as pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and cystic fibrosis.
- Certain medications .
- Gestational diabetes, which happens in 4% of pregnancies, and is due to decreased insulin sensitivity.
- Surgery or trauma.
Basal Bolus Insulin Regimens
The combination of rapid-acting insulin analogs and a long-acting peakless insulin offers an excellent option for basal and bolus insulin administration. Glargine is the first long-acting analog to have received Food and Drug Administration approval. It is an almost peakless insulin, with a duration of action of 2024 h. Usually it is given at bedtime, although administration at other times of the day may result in similar levels of coverage and glycemic control. In some patients glargine may not last 24 h, and anecdotal experience has suggested dividing the dose into two daily injections. Glargine has been approved for use in pediatric patients 6 years of age. Ongoing clinical studies in the pediatric population will define the most effective use of this insulin preparation in young children. Because there is some increase in effective insulin action during the initial 35 h after administration, nocturnal hypoglycemia, in theory, may be reduced in young children by administering glargine in the morning or before supper.
Monitoring Blood Glucose Levels
Blood glucose levels can be measured easily at home or anywhere.
A fingerstick glucose test is most often used to monitor blood glucose. Most blood glucose monitoring devices use a drop of blood obtained by pricking the tip of the finger with a small lancet. The lancet holds a tiny needle that can be jabbed into the finger or placed in a spring-loaded device that easily and quickly pierces the skin. Most people find that the pricking causes only minimal discomfort. Then, a drop of blood is placed on a reagent strip. The strip contains chemicals that undergo changes depending on the glucose level. The glucose meter reads the changes in the test strip and reports the result on a digital display. Some devices allow the blood sample to be obtained from other sites, such as the palm, forearm, upper arm, thigh, or calf. Home glucose meters are smaller than a deck of cards.
Continuous glucose monitoring systems use a small glucose sensor placed under the skin. The sensor measures blood glucose levels every few minutes. There are two types of CGMs, with different purposes:
Professional CGMs collect continuous blood glucose information over a period of time . Health care providers use this information to make treatment recommendations. Professional CGMs do not provide data to the person with diabetes.
Recommended Reading: Is Ginger Ale Good For Diabetics
Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Review Quiz
Where Can I Find Diabetes Relief
While there are prescription drugs for diabetes, absolutely nothing rather does the job totally. Thanks to recent developments in scientific research studies & research carried out at specialized diabetes facilities throughout the nations, theres a brand-new service to accelerate the outcomes & relief youre looking for.
Through the research done by our authors, one extra procedure worth considering is natural supplements. Normally speaking, natural supplements have existed for thousands of years with incredible outcomes and have begun to make a substantial return over the last few years. Whats the natural supplement perfect for quickly supporting diabetes? Let us introduce Glucofort.
Read Also: Blood Sugar Lowering Medication
Tight Control Of Type 1 Diabetes: Recommendations For Patients
STEPHEN HAVAS, M.D., M.P.H., M.S., American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois
THOMAS DONNER, M.D., University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
Am Fam Physician. 2006 Sep 15 74:971-978.
Patient information: See related handout on type 1 diabetes, written by the authors of this article.
Tight control of blood glucose levels and risk factors for cardiovascular disease can substantially reduce the incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complications from type 1 diabetes. Physicians play an important role in helping patients make essential lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of these complications. Key recommendations that family physicians can give patients to optimize their outcomes include: take control of daily decisions regarding your health, focus on preventing and controlling risk factors for cardiovascular disease, tightly control your blood glucose level, be cognizant of potentially inaccurate blood glucose test results, use physiologic insulin replacement regimens, and learn how to manage and prevent hypoglycemia.
What Are The Symptoms Of Hyperglycemia
Its especially important to know the early signs of hyperglycemia if you have type 1 diabetes. If hyperglycemia is left untreated in people with type 1 diabetes, it can develop into ketoacidosis, where ketones, which are toxic acids, build up in the blood. This condition is an emergency situation that can lead to coma or death.
Early symptoms of hyperglycemia include:
- High blood sugar.
- Unusual fruity smell on the breath.
- Deep labored breathing or hyperventilation.
- Rapid heartbeat.
Recommended Reading: What Happens In Type 1 Diabetes
Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Quiz
This NCLEX diabetes mellitus quiz will test your knowledge on diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is where a patient does not have sufficient amounts of insulin to use the glucose that enters the blood stream. Therefore, the patient experiences hyperglycemia which is damaging to the body.
The NCLEX and nursing school lecture exams love to test students on their ability to differentiate between causes, signs and symptoms, patient education, and various treatments for diabetes.
This NCLEX quiz will test your ability:
- Patho of Diabetes Mellitus
- Different types of Diabetes Mellitus
- Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
- Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 Diabetes Treatment
People who have type 1 diabetes can live long, healthy lives. Youâll need to keep a close eye on your blood sugar levels. Your doctor will give you a range that the numbers should stay within. Adjust your insulin, food, and activities as necessary.
Everyone with type 1 diabetes needs to use insulin shots to control their blood sugar.
When your doctor talks about insulin, theyâll mention three main things:
- “Onset” is how long it takes to reach your bloodstream and begin lowering your blood sugar.
- “Peak time” is when insulin is doing the most work in terms of lowering your blood sugar.
- “Duration” is how long it keeps working after onset.
Several types of insulin are available.
- Rapid-acting starts to work in about 15 minutes. It peaks about 1 hour after you take it and continues to work for 2 to 4 hours.
- Regular or short-acting gets to work in about 30 minutes. It peaks between 2 and 3 hours and keeps working for 3 to 6 hours.
- Intermediate-acting wonât get into your bloodstream for 2 to 4 hours after your shot. It peaks from 4 to 12 hours and works for 12 to 18 hours.
- Long-acting takes several hours to get into your system and lasts about 24 hours.
Your doctor may start you out with two injections a day of two types of insulin. Later, you might need more shots.
Recommended Reading: Which Pancreatic Cells Release Insulin And Glucagon
Get Help At The University Of Michigan
If you have type 1 diabetes, there are several ways you can be involved with the care and resources at U-M. To make an appointment with a clinician, reach out to one of the locations listed below. You can take an education class on type 1 led by a group of diabetes and self-care experts from U-Mlearn more about our classes.
Eat A Healthy Balanced Diet
People with type 1 diabetes have to pay a little more attention to their meals and snacks than people who don’t have diabetes. They need to eat a balanced, healthy diet and pay closer attention to what they eat and when they eat it.
They also have to balance the food they eat with the amount of insulin they take and their activity level. That’s because eating some foods will cause blood sugar levels to go up more than others, whereas insulin and exercise will make blood sugar go down. How much the blood sugar level goes up after eating depends on the type of nutrients the food contains.
The three main types of nutrients found in foods are carbohydrates , proteins, and fats, which all provide energy in the form of calories. Foods containing carbs cause blood sugar levels to go up the most. Foods that contain mostly protein and/or fat don’t affect blood sugar levels as much. Our bodies need all of these nutrients in different amounts to function normally.
As part of your diabetes treatment, you and the diabetes health care team will create a written diabetes meal plan that will include foods with all of the essential nutrients. Meal plans typically consist of breakfast, lunch, and dinner with scheduled between-meal snacks.
Read Also: Side Effects Of Taking Too Much Metformin
People Can Outgrow Diabetes
False: People dont grow out of their diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops making insulin and wont make it again. People with type 1 diabetes will always need to take insulin, at least until scientists find a cure for diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes may find it easier to control blood sugar levels if they make healthy changes to their lives, like eating right and exercising regularly. But theyll probably always have the tendency to develop high blood sugar levels, so its important to maintain those healthy lifestyle changes.
Additional Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes In Babies And Toddlers
- Weight loss
- Failure to thrive, a condition involving weight loss or inability to gain weight combined with stunted growth
- Colic or fussiness that just wont let up
- Poor-quality sleep that doesnt improve no matter what you try
- Bedwetting, especially after successful potty-training
All of these symptoms are a result of hyperglycemiatoo much glucose circulating in our bloodstream, also known as high blood sugar. Any person experiencing hyperglycemia, particularly after a viral illness, should seek immediate medical help.
Also Check: Hyperglycemia Mayo
Whats The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Think of insulin as a key that unlocks your cells, says Ilana Halperin MD, assistant professor of medicine at the University of Toronto. In type 1 diabetes, there is simply no key. There is a total absence of insulin coming from the cells in the pancreas, she says. Essentially, the body destroys the cells in the pancreas that are responsible for making insulin.
In type 2 diabetes, you have a rusty key that cant open the lock as well. In this form, a person develops an insulin resistance, so that insulin doesn’t perform correctly in their body.
Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes:
Any combination of the following factors may put people at a higher risk for type 1 diabetes:
- Self-allergy : The immune system usually protects us from disease, but in the case of type 1 diabetes, the immune system turns against the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin . If you have any type of autoimmune disease, your risk of developing diabetes increases. Doctors can test for diabetes antibodies, specifically one called GAD65. Measuring this antibody early in the disease can help your medical team determine if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
- Genes: People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to have inherited genes putting them at risk. Over 50% of those diagnosed with type 1 diabetes also have a close relative with the disease.
Preschoolers And Early School
Children at this stage of development need to gain confidence in their ability to accomplish tasks but often lack the fine motor control, cognitive development, and impulse control necessary to be an active participant in most aspects of diabetes care. It is important to realize, however, that most children in this age-group can participate in their self-management by testing blood glucose, helping to keep records, and in some cases counting carbohydrates. For the most part, parents provide the care for preschoolers and young school-aged children, but others, such as child care providers and school nurses may also be involved in the care. Sharing care of young children with diabetes is often difficult for parents, who may fear that others will not know what to do . Undetected hypoglycemia remains a concern because of the variations in activity and food intake characteristic of this age-group, and because of continuing concerns regarding the adverse effects of hypoglycemia on brain development and function.
Classification And Diagnosis Of Diabetes
Diabetes can be classified into the following general categories:
Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
Gestational diabetes mellitus
Specific types of diabetes due to other causes, e.g., monogenic diabetes syndromes , diseases of the exocrine pancreas , and drug- or chemical-induced diabetes
This section reviews most common forms of diabetes but is not comprehensive. For additional information, see the American Diabetes Association position statement Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus .
Assigning a type of diabetes to an individual often depends on the circumstances present at the time of diagnosis, with individuals not necessarily fitting clearly into a single category. For example, some patients cannot be clearly classified as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Clinical presentation and disease progression may vary considerably in both types of diabetes.
Recommended Reading: How To Manage Type 1 Diabetes
Sorting Myth From Fact
Theres a lot of diabetes information out there unfortunately, not all of it is based on facts. Although you can find a lot of good information about diabetes on the Internet, you also can find bad information. Following bad advice could actually harm a person with diabetes.
Sometimes you dont even need to log onto a website to get incorrect info family members or friends can give out information thats incorrect, inaccurate, or misleading without even knowing it!
Its a good idea to talk to your diabetes health care team if you ever come across information that doesnt seem quite right or sounds too good to be true. And be cautious if someone tells you to do the opposite of what your diabetes health care team has told you always check with your doctors first to get the scoop on whats helpful and whats harmful.
So lets find out which of these common things said about diabetes are true and which are false.
General Treatment Of Diabetes
People with diabetes benefit greatly from learning about the disorder, understanding how diet and exercise affect their blood glucose levels, and knowing how to avoid complications. A nurse trained in diabetes education can provide information about managing diet, exercising, monitoring blood glucose levels, and taking drugs.
You May Like: How Many Carbs Should A Diabetic Have In One Day
Psychosocial Issues Affecting The Diabetes Care Plan
Certain characteristics of the child/adolescent and their parents predict an increased risk for difficulties with diabetes management. Findings in the child include the presence of other health problems , poor school attendance, learning disabilities, and emotional and behavioral disorders, including risk-taking behaviors resulting in delinquent behavior and depression .
Likewise, certain family characteristics have been identified as risk factors for poor diabetes control and repeat hospitalizations. These include a single-parent home, chronic physical or mental health problems in a parent or other close family member a recent major life change for the parent , lack of adequate health insurance, complex child care arrangements, and health/cultural/religious beliefs that make it difficult for the family to follow current diabetes treatment plans . Additional barriers to care may be found in a family with intimate experience with diabetes. A parent with diabetes may be committed to outdated treatment ideas or information more pertinent to adult diabetes care. Personal knowledge of the acute and chronic complications of diabetes may result in anxiety and/or depression, impairing the ability to learn the tools needed to succeed in diabetes management and hindering the care of the child with diabetes.