Type 2 Diabetes In Children
One 2016 study found that the incidence of type 2 diabetes in youth has increased to about 5,000 new cases per year. Another study from 2017 also showed a significant increase, particularly in minority races and ethnic groups.
If your child has been diagnosed with diabetes, their doctor will need to determine if its type 1 or type 2 before suggesting a specific treatment.
In the same way that lifestyle choices can help adults manage or even reverse their type 2 diabetes diagnosis, you can help lower your childs risk by encouraging them to eat well and to be physically active every day.
report the following statistics about diabetes in the United States:
- Over 30 million people have diabetes. Thats around 10 percent of the population.
- 1 in 4 people has no idea they have diabetes.
- Prediabetes affects 84.1 million adults, and 90 percent of them are unaware of it.
- Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and Native American adults are to have diabetes as non-Hispanic white adults.
The ADA reports the following statistics:
Can A Patient With Diabetes Have A Kidney Transplant
Yes. Once you get a new kidney, you may need a higher dose of insulin. Your appetite will improve so your new kidney will break down insulin better than your injured one. You will use steroids to keep your body from rejecting your new kidney. If your new kidney fails, dialysis treatment can be started while you wait for another kidney. To learn more about kidney transplant .
What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition. It happens when your liver breaks down fat to use as energy because theres not enough insulin and therefore glucose isnt being used as an energy source. Fat is broken down by the liver into a fuel called ketones. The formation and use of ketones is a normal process if it has been a long time since your last meal and your body needs fuel. Ketones are a problem when your fat is broken down too fast for your body to process and they build up in your blood. This makes your blood acidic, which is a condition called ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be the result of uncontrolled Type 1 diabetes and less commonly, Type 2 diabetes.Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by the presence of ketones in your urine or blood and a basic metabolic panel. The condition develops over several hours and can cause coma and possibly even death.
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When To Contact A Medical Professional
- Chest pain or pressure
- Shortness of breath
- Red, painful skin that is spreading quickly
These symptoms can quickly get worse and become emergency conditions .
Also call your provider if you have:
- Numbness, tingling, or pain in your feet or legs
- Problems with your eyesight
- Sores or infections on your feet
- Symptoms of high blood sugar
- Symptoms of low blood sugar
- Frequent feelings of depression or anxiety
Can Diabetes Cause Hair Loss
Yes, its possible for diabetes to cause hair loss. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to persistently high blood glucose levels. This, in turn, leads to blood vessel damage and restricted flow, and oxygen and nutrients cant get to the cells that need it including hair follicles. Stress can cause hormone level changes that affect hair growth. If you have Type 1 diabetes, your immune system attacks itself and can also cause a hair loss condition called alopecia areata.
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Understanding Diabetes From Other Causes
In addition to type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes, a small minority of people develop specific types of diabetes due to other causes. This includes:
- Monogenic diabetes syndromes, such as neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young
- Diseases of the exocrine pancreas, such as cystic fibrosis and pancreatitis
- Drug or chemical-induced diabetes, such as with glucocorticoid use, in the treatment of HIV/AIDS or after organ transplantation
Because these types of diabetes are rare, they are often misdiagnosed as other types of diabetes. You can learn more about these types of diabetes in the Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes section in the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. If you think you might have one of these types, be sure to talk with your doctor.
Can Diabetes Be Prevented Or Avoided
Talk to your doctor about your risk factors for diabetes. Although you may not be able to change all of them, you can make changes to significantly lower your risk.
- Exercise and weight control. Exercising and maintaining a healthy weight can reduce your risk of diabetes. Any amount of activity is better than none. Try to exercise for 30 to 60 minutes most days of the week. Always talk with your doctor before starting an exercise program.
- Diet. A diet high in fat, calories, and cholesterol increases your risk of diabetes. A poor diet can lead to obesity and other health problems. A healthy diet is high in fiber and low in fat, cholesterol, salt, and sugar. Also, remember to watch your portion size. How much you eat is just as important as what you eat.
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Type 2 Diabetes: What You Should Know
The bad news first: diabetes is one of the leading causes of death in the United States.
Now, the good news: itâs also one of the most preventable, and can be managed effectively with the right care.
Diabetes affects more than 34 million Americansâthatâs about 10 percent of the population. Most of those cases are type 2, and itâs a condition that usually affects older people.
But not always. More and more young people, teenagers, and even children in the United States are being diagnosed as prediabetic or type 2 diabetic.
Weâve put together this helpful guide to answer some of the most common questions about type 2 diabetes.
What Are The Early Signs Of Kidney Disease In Patients With Diabetes
The earliest sign of diabetic kidney disease is an increased excretion of albumin in the urine. This is present long before the usual tests done in your doctor’s office show evidence of kidney disease, so it is important for you to have this test on a yearly basis. Weight gain and ankle swelling may occur. You will use the bathroom more at night. Your blood pressure may get too high. As a person with diabetes, you should have your blood, urine and blood pressure checked at least once a year. This will lead to better control of your disease and early treatment of high blood pressure and kidney disease. Maintaining control of your diabetes can lower your risk of developing severe kidney disease.
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Lowering Your Type 1 Diabetes Risk
A persons risk for developing Type 1 diabetes often cannot be lowered or prevented since the disease is the result of an immune response. Several risk factors associated with the disease are also unable to be changed, such as ones family history, genetic makeup, race or ethnicity, or other autoimmune conditions.
It may be possible, however, to prevent injury or damage to the pancreas that can sometimes result in the development of Type 1 diabetes. The pancreas can be easily injured due to its lack of protection from the ribcage. Pancreatic trauma, the term for injury to the pancreas, is most often caused by a car accident or a direct blow to the abdomen. The trauma that occurs can be the result of blunt force or penetration.
If a pancreatic injury is suspected, it is important to seek immediate medical attention, especially where there is blood loss, persistent abdominal pain or other symptoms. Those conditions might include inflammation, bruising, dizziness, nausea and vomiting.
Signs and symptoms of a pancreatic trauma can surface hours or even days after the injury occurs. Surgery is often necessary to treat an injury to the pancreas that results in symptoms. Pancreatic injuries can sometimes become life-threatening.
Preventing Acute Pancreatitis
Other factors linked to the development of acute pancreatitis include:
What Will Happen If My Kidneys Have Been Damaged
First, the doctor needs to find out if your diabetes has caused the injury. Other diseases can cause kidney damage. Your kidneys will work better and last longer if you:
- Control your diabetes
- Get treatment for urinary tract infections
- Correct any problems in your urinary system
- Avoid any medicines that may damage the kidneys
If no other problems are found, your doctor will try to keep your kidneys working as long as possible. The use of high blood pressure medicines called angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors has been shown to help slow the loss of kidney function.
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Liver Fat Directly Raises Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes
Our research has revealed that having higher levels of fat in the liver, and having a smaller pancreas, directly increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The findings provide a significant step forward in understanding the biological causes driving the development of the condition.
This research could unlock new treatment approaches and allow more tailored ways to help people reduce their risk of type 2 diabetes, as well as prevent cases altogether.
Is liver fat causing type 2 diabetes?
Researchers, funded by us and led by our research fellow Dr Hanieh Yaghootkar, at Brunel University, explored whether liver and pancreas size and fat content could play a direct role in causing type 2 diabetes. They used Mendelian randomisation a statistical method that uses genetic and health information to understand cause and effect.
The team looked at data from 32,859 people who had had MRI scans as part of the UK Biobank study. Liver and pancreas fat and size were analysed from these scans, alongside information about genes that affect them. This was to understand their role in the risk of developing diabetes.
Pancreas fat levels and liver size were associated with type 2 diabetes but were not found to play a direct role in raising type 2 diabetes risk. The researchers also looked at data from 9,000 people with type 1 diabetes, but liver and pancreas size or fat levels were not found to be directly linked to the autoimmune condition.
Diabetes And Mental Health
A diabetes diagnosis can be a life altering event. Whether it be type 1 diabetes where the body does not make any insulin at all or type 2 diabetes when the pancreas makes some insulin but not enough, it can mean changes to your lifestyle that you may not be ready for and can also be hard on relationships with friends or family. As you establish a new routine it is important to establish good habits in managing your mental health. Proper diabetes management requires awareness of your symptoms. Just as you take insulin to ensure your blood glucose levels are where they should be, its important to take measures to prevent mental health crises by being aware of how you are feeling mentally and emotionally.
Just like taking care of your body, taking care of your mind is equally as important to living a healthy life. When left untreated, mental health conditions like depression and anxiety can make diabetes worse. Likewise, existing diabetes can make mental health conditions worse.
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Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Reversed
Yes! The good news is that several studies have shown that type 2 diabetes can be reversed. You are considered in remission from type 2 diabetes when you have had normal blood sugar levels for a year without medication.
One of the most important components in reversing type 2 diabetes is early detection. Dr. Bergquist explains, The pancreas produces insulin. The longer you have diabetes, the more damage your insulin resistance causes to your pancreas, and the less likely your pancreas is to recover. Hence, the possibility for remission decreases the longer you have diabetes. But theres a wide window during which you can be successful.
How Is Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosed
The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes at the first prenatal visit in women with diabetes risk factors. In pregnant women not known to have diabetes, GDM testing should be performed at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation.
In addition, women with diagnosed GDM should be screened for persistent diabetes 6 to 12 weeks postpartum. It is also recommended that women with a history of GDM undergo lifelong screening for the development of diabetes or prediabetes at least every three years.
Can Obesity Cause Type 2 Diabetes
How we understand and type 2 diabetes matters as they are the most widespread metabolic disorders. Though theyre separate conditions, they often overlap.
Weight and nutrition specialist Caroline Apovian, MD, explains, Although lifestyle is very important for both obesity treatment and diabetes, there are people who never develop obesity, and there are people who do have obesity for whom lifestyle changes dont always work, because obesity is a disease and the body defends a higher body weight set point. Even after weight loss, the hormonal changes involved in obesity can force a patient to regain the weight.
Type 2 diabetes patients did not bring it on themselves, emphasizes diabetes and metabolism expert Elena Christofides, MD. This is not a moral failing.
But both the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is increasing. Why? Researchers believe its our environment. There has been an increased availability of high-fat, high-sugar, highly processed foods. These foods often contain other non-food items.
Some of these ingredients have been found to act as endocrine disrupters and change the way our bodies store fat and process energy. While there have not been sufficient studies to prove a causal relationship, most doctors and nutritionists recommend avoiding them.
Shin Spots Or Diabetic Dermopathy
This condition involves circular, reddish, or light-brown patches that usually appear on the shins or other bony parts of the body. Patches are also usually indented and scaly.
The condition is caused by nerve and blood vessel damage, in particular small blood vessel changes.
As the condition impacts areas of the body with less protective muscle and fat, lesions may reflect an increased response to injury.
Lesions are harmless, and the person does not usually need treatment.
Sometimes, insignificant wounds can become open sores called diabetic ulcers. These can occur anywhere on the skin but are most common on the feet.
Diabetes can affect blood circulation and the nervous system. If a person has a wound on their foot due, for example, to ill-fitting shoes, the lack of sensation in the foot can mean that they do not notice the injury. In addition, low blood supply can make it harder for wounds to heal.
Without treatment, an ulcer can develop. If this becomes infected, there is a risk of tissue death, and the person may ultimately need an amputation.
It is essential for people with diabetes to:
- manage their blood sugar levels
- check their feet and other parts of the body regularly for wounds or lesions that may need attention
According to an article in
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How Is Type 2 Diabetes Managed
Theres no cure for Type 2 diabetes. But you can manage the condition by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and taking medication if needed. Work with your healthcare provider to manage your:
- Blood sugar: A blood glucose meter or continuous glucose monitoring can help you meet your blood sugar target. Your healthcare provider may also recommend regular A1c tests, oral medications , insulin therapy or injectable non-insulin diabetes medications.
- Blood pressure: Lower your blood pressure by not smoking, exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet. Your healthcare provider may recommend blood pressure medication such as beta blockers or ACE inhibitors.
- Cholesterol: Follow a meal plan low in saturated fats, trans fat, salt and sugar. Your healthcare provider may recommend statins, which are a type of drug to lower cholesterol.
Can Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes And Gestational Diabetes Be Prevented
Although diabetes risk factors like family history and race cant be changed, there are other risk factors that you do have some control over. Adopting some of the healthy lifestyle habits listed below can improve these modifiable risk factors and help to decrease your chances of getting diabetes:
- Eat a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean or Dash diet. Keep a food diary and calorie count of everything you eat. Cutting 250 calories per day can help you lose ½ pound per week.
- Get physically active. Aim for 30 minutes a day at least five days a week. Start slow and work up to this amount or break up these minutes into more doable 10 minute segments. Walking is great exercise.
- Lose weight if you are overweight. Dont lose weight if you are pregnant, but check with your obstetrician about healthy weight gain during your pregnancy.
- Lower your stress. Learn relaxation techniques, deep breathing exercises, mindful meditation, yoga and other helpful strategies.
- Limit alcohol intake. Men should drink no more than two alcoholic beverages a day women should drink no more than one.
- Get an adequate amount of sleep .
- Take medications to manage existing risk factors for heart disease or to reduce the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes as directed by your healthcare provider.
- If you think you have symptoms of prediabetes, see your provider.
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