Half Of Adults In The Us Have Diabetes Or Pre
A national wake up call to intensify efforts to control the obesity crisis with added focus on diet, exercise and monitoring blood sugar
According to a study published online in JAMA today, nearly 50% of adults living in the U.S. have diabetes or pre-diabetes, a condition where a person already has elevated blood sugar and is at risk to develop diabetes.
Diabetes, a condition where blood sugar is elevated, may reflect lack of production of insulin to lower blood sugar or insulin resistance , generally the result of obesity, poor diet or lack of exercise leading to the metabolic syndrome.
An obese woman, left, walks in New York, Monday, July 13, 2015.
Diabetes is a costly disease in the U.S, racking up an estimated 245 billion in 2012, related to consumption and utilization of health care resources as well as lost productivity, according to the researchers in the study. Diabetes can damage blood vessels, the eyes and kidneys, also resulting in poor wound healing and devastating soft tissue infections. And nearly 71,000 persons die annually due to complications associated with diabetes, based on recent statistics from the American Diabetes Association.
Investigators in the study defined undiagnosed diabetes as those persons having a fasting blood sugar greater than 126 mg/dl or a hemoglobin A1C > 6.5 %, a measure of long term glucose control. Pre-diabetes was defined as having a fasting blood sugar 100-125 mg/dl, or a hemoglobin A1C of 5.7-6.4%.
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Unreported Cases Among Ethnic Groups
Meanwhile, another study done by researchers from the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which was published in the same issue of JAMA, showed more than half of Asian Americans and nearly half of Hispanic Americans with diabetes are undiagnosed.
At 51 percent, Asian Americans have the highest proportion of undiagnosed diabetes among all ethnic and racial subgroups studied. In all, 21 percent of that population had diabetes.
Hispanic Americans had the highest level of diabetes at nearly 23 percent. Of those, 49 percent were undiagnosed.
Andy Menke, Ph.D., epidemiologist at Social & Scientific Systems Inc. in Silver Spring, Maryland, said there is no clear-cut reason for these distinctions by race and ethnicity.
He theorized it may have something to do with differences in genetics, diet, and access to healthcare. Menke also attributed possible differences to cultural traditions regarding obesity.
Menke emphasized the need to better educate people on the risk factors of diabetes. Those factors include obesity, older age, and family history.
Diabetes Statistics By Type
There are four types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune attack on pancreas cells stops them from creating insulin, so people with Type 1 need to take insulin shots every day. In most cases, Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed in children and teens, but it can manifest in adults as well.
- Type 2 diabetes: People with Type 2 can produce insulin, but their bodies resist it. When blood sugar is consistently high, the pancreas continuously pumps out insulin, and eventually, cells become overexposed. Type 2 is by far the most common type of diabetes and one that typically develops in adults however, the rate of Type 2 diabetes in children is increasing.
- Gestational diabetes: This type only occurs in pregnant women and typically goes away after childbirth however, half of women who have gestational diabetes will develop Type 2 diabetes later in life. Treatment includes a doctor-recommended exercise and meal plan. Sometimes daily blood glucose tests and insulin injections are necessary.
- Prediabetes: Prediabetes isnt technically diabetes. Its more like a precursor. A prediabetic persons blood glucose is consistently above average, but not high enough to warrant a full diabetes diagnosis. People with prediabetes can help prevent Type 2 diabetes by implementing a healthy diet, increased physical activity, and stress management.
Heres how prevalent each type of diabetes is:
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Cdc: 13% Of Us Adults Have Diabetes With Fewer New Cases
CDC. National Diabetes Statistics Report. Available at: . Accessed Feb. 25, 2020.
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Approximately 34.1 million U.S. adults more than 1 in 10 have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and 7.3 million of those adults who met laboratory criteria were unaware or did not report having the disease, according to data from the CDCs 2020 National Diabetes Statistics Report.
The report, released Tuesday by the CDCs Division of Diabetes Translation, also revealed that age-adjusted prevalence of total diabetes increased among adults between 1999 and 2016, rising from 9.5% in 1999-2002 to 12% in 2013-2016. However, new diabetes cases decreased during the past decade except among children and adolescents. The 2020 report marks the first time trends in prevalence and incidence estimates over time are included, according to the report.
Data from this report can help focus critical type 2 diabetes prevention and diabetes management efforts across the nation, the CDC states on its website.
Age-adjusted data for 2017-2018 indicated that the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was highest among Native Americans and Alaskan Natives , Hispanic adults and black adults .
A significant decreasing trend in incidence was detected from 2008 through 2018, the report states.
Diabetes Statistics In America
- More than 34 million Americans have diabetes, which is nearly 11% of the U.S. population.
- Every 17 seconds, an American is diagnosed with diabetes.
- There are 1.5 million new cases of diabetes in the United States each year.
Diabetes statistics by state
The states with the highest percentage of adults with diagnosed diabetes are:
- West Virginia
*The statistics are for adult cases, which were updated in September 2020
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What Cdc Is Doing
CDC is working to reverse the epidemic by helping to identify people with prediabetes, prevent type 2 diabetes and diabetes complications, and improve the health of all people with diabetes. Those efforts include:
Explore the Division of Diabetes Translation website to learn more about how CDC is translating science into practice to realize its vision: a world free of the devastation of diabetes.
Sensation Problems And Amputation
Diabetes causes mild loss of sensation in the extremities in as many as 70 percent of adults who have it. Amputations of lower extremities may eventually be necessary, especially for people with blood vessel disease. More than 60 percent of all nontraumatic amputations of lower limbs occur in people with diabetes. Approximately 73,000 lower-limb amputations were performed in diabetics age 20 and older.
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The Nations Risk Factors And Cdcs Response
Some risk factors for type 2 diabetes cant be modified, such as age and family history, but some can, such as having prediabetes, being overweight, eating unhealthy food, being inactive, and smoking. CDC works to help people reduce those modifiable risk factors so they can prevent or delay developing type 2 diabetes and improve their overall health.
Half Of Americans Have Diabetes Or High Blood Sugar Survey Finds
Half of all U.S. adults have diabetes or blood sugar so high theyre almost diabetic, researchers reported Tuesday.
And for the first time theyve looked at diabetes rates among Asian-Americans and find they are nearly as high as rates among other minorities. Twenty percent of Asian-Americans had diabetes, the survey found, and half of them were not aware of it.
Andy Menke of global health research company Social & Scientific Systems, Catherine Cowie of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others used annual national survey data of 5,000 people for their report.
They found that 12 percent to 14 percent of adults had diagnosed diabetes in 2012, the latest data available. Its almost all Type 2 diabetes, which is caused by poor diet, obesity and a lack of exercise.
While 11 percent of whites had diabetes, nearly twice as many 22 percent of blacks did. More than 20 percent of Asians had diabetes and 22.6 percent of Hispanics did.
The proportion of diabetes thats undiagnosed is as high as 50 percent in Asian-Americans and the Hispanic population compared to about a third in whites and it blacks, Cowie said.
They found a steep rise in diabetes between 1990 and 2008, and found it started leveling off after that.
When stratified by BMI, diabetes only increased among people with a BMI of 30 or greater. BMI or body mass index is a measure of obesity. People with a BMI of 30 or higher are medically obese.
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Cdc: About 8 Percent Of Americans Have Diabetes
A report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, based on data from 2007, said the number represents an increase of about 3 million over two years. The CDC estimates another 57 million people have blood sugar abnormalities called pre-diabetes, which puts people at increased risk for the disease.
The percentage of people unaware that they have diabetes fell from 30 percent to 25 percent, according to the study.
Dr. Ann Albright, director of the CDC Division of Diabetes Translation, said the report has “both good news and bad news.”
“It is concerning to know that we have more people developing diabetes, and these data are a reminder of the importance of increasing awareness of this condition, especially among people who are at high risk,” Albright said in a statement.
“On the other hand, it is good to see that more people are aware that they have diabetes.”
A message left Tuesday night seeking further comment from the CDC wasn’t immediately returned.
The disease results from defects in insulin production that cause sugar to build up in the body. It is the seventh leading cause of death in the country and can cause serious health problems including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure and amputations.
Among adults, diabetes increased in both men and women and in all age groups, but still disproportionately affects the elderly. Almost 25 percent of the population 60 years and older had diabetes in 2007.
In Other News
Half Of Americans Have Diabetes Or A High Risk For It And Many Of Them Are Unaware
Baseball, hot dogs, apple pie and diabetes .
Thats right. The metabolic condition is about as American as you can get, according to a new national report card on diabetes released Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
The report shows that nearly half of Americans have diabetes or prediabetes, which puts them at high risk for the condition. A good number of these folks havent been diagnosed and dont even realize their predicament.
People with diabetes have too much sugar in their blood. If the disease isnt controlled, they can wind up with heart disease, nerve damage, kidney problems, eye damage and other serious health problems.
The new report combines data from the CDC, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Indian Health Service and the Census Bureau. Heres a numerical look at what they reveal about diabetes in America.
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Diabetes Facts And Statistics
Diabetes occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. High blood glucose can cause health problems over time. The main types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational. Learn more from the Diabetes Overview.
- Total: An estimated 34.2 million people have diabetes .
- Diagnosed: An estimated 26.9 million people of all ages have been diagnosed with diabetes .
- Of the people diagnosed with diabetes, 210,000 are children and adolescents younger than age 20 years, including 187,000 with type 1 diabetes.
View the full report: National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2020 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
According to the American Diabetes Associations Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S., the total estimated cost of diagnosed diabetes in 2017 was $327 billion, including $237 billion in direct medical costs and $90 billion in reduced productivity.
How Do People Die From Diabetes
People rarely die from diabetes directly. Its more likely that someone with diabetes will die from complications with other organs. For example, high blood sugar can damage the kidneys over a long period of time, leading to potential kidney failure. And since diabetes is often associated with cardiovascular conditions, heart failure, and stroke are other common causes of death in diabetics. In rare cases of Type 1 diabetes, a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis can cause sudden death.
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Native Americans With Diabetes
Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other US racial group. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, a costly condition that requires dialysis or kidney transplant for survival. Kidney failure can be delayed or prevented by controlling blood pressure and blood sugar and by taking medicines that protect the kidneys. Good diabetes care includes regular kidney testing and education about kidney disease and treatment. Kidney failure from diabetes among Native Americans was the highest of any race. However, this has declined the fastest since the Indian Health Service began using population health and team-based approaches to diabetes and kidney care, a potential model for other populations.
Health care systems can:
Native Americans are twice as likely as whites to have diabetes.
In about 2 out of 3 Native Americans with kidney failure, diabetes is the cause.
Kidney failure from diabetes dropped by 54% in Native Americans between 1996 and 2013.
Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans.
Native Americans are more likely to have diabetes.
- Native Americans are twice as likely as whites to have been diagnosed with diabetes.
Native Americans were more likely to have kidney failure from diabetes than other races until recently.
Diabetes-related kidney failure among Native Americans decreased by 54% from 1996 to 2013.
Kidney failure is a disabling and expensive complication of diabetes throughout the US.
Diabetes Statistics By Age
Theres a greater prevalence of diabetes among older age groups, especially for Type 2 diabetes, which takes longer to develop.
- Of the Americans with diagnosed diabetes, 3.6 million are 18 to 44 years old, 11.7 million are 45 to 64 years old, and 11.5 million are older than 65.
- There are 210,000 cases of diagnosed diabetes among children and adolescents younger than 20, including 187,000 cases of Type 1 diabetes.
- Of the Americans with undiagnosed diabetes, 1.4 million are 18 to 44, 3.1 million are 45 to 64, and 2.9 million are older than 65.
- Approximately 24.2 million adults aged 65 and older have prediabetes.
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The Risks For Certain Groups
Ricordi said diabetes and COVID-19 are inflammatory diseases that carry an increased risk of dangerous blood clotting.
He also emphasized that common comorbidities of diabetes, including obesity and high blood pressure, also likely play a role in a personâs poorer COVID-19 outcome.
People with type 1 diabetes also are at higher risk but for different reasons.
Because individuals with type 1 diabetes have an autoimmune disease, they are predisposed to other immunological disorders and also may have âless ability to regulate their immune system, and that can lower their ability to fight an immune-triggeringâ disease such as COVID-19, Ricordi said.
The link between diabetes and COVID-19 illness severity and death is particularly strong among Hispanic and Latinx populations, the study concluded.
Hispanic people are 2.4 times more likely to die of COVID-19 and 50 percent more likely to have diabetes than white Americans, researchers noted. Part of the reason is that many people in this community donât know they have diabetes, Bajpeyi said.
Type 1 Vs Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is an umbrella term for multiple conditions that cause dysfunction in the bodys ability to metabolize glucose, secrete insulin, or both.
When you take in glucose from the foods you eat, you need a hormone called insulin. Insulin is released by beta cells from your pancreas. When insulin reaches the cells in your body, it attaches to receptors that help the cells identify and take in glucose from your bloodstream.
- Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that most commonly develops in childhood. With type 1 diabetes, the body attacks the beta cells of the pancreas, limiting their ability to produce insulin. Without enough insulin, the cells cannot take in glucose, which, in turn, causes high blood sugar levels.
- Type 2 diabetes is a type of chronic condition that often starts in adulthood. With type 2 diabetes, it becomes harder for your body to recognize insulin, a condition called insulin resistance. Without an adequate insulin response, it becomes harder for your cells to take up glucose, and as a result, blood sugar levels rise.
While type 1 diabetes is solely caused by a lack of insulin, type 2 diabetes can be caused by both a sensitivity to insulin and a lack of insulin.
However, insulin deficiency in type 2 diabetes is not autoimmune. Instead, it happens because the pancreas cannot keep up with the increased demand for insulin due to insulin resistance.
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Facts About Diabetes And Race
While diabetes can affect people within any racial or ethnic group, it disproportionately affects people of certain racial or ethnic backgrounds.
- According to the American Diabetes Association , the prevalence of diabetes in non-Hispanic Blacks is 11.7 percent, versus only 7.5 percent in non-Hispanic whites.
- Asian Americans are slightly more affected by diabetes than white Americans, with a prevalence of 9.2 percent.
- Hispanics and American Indians/Alaskan Natives have the highest rates of diabetes, at 12.5 percent and 14.7 percent, respectively.
Among non-Hispanic Black Americans in 2018, the prevalence of diabetes was 13.4 percent in Black men versus 12.7 percent in Black women, according to statistics from the Office of Minority Health.
In addition to having higher rates of diabetes, Black Americans are also more likely to experience complications from diabetes.
For example, rates of diabetic retinopathy are 46 percent higher in African Americans than non-Hispanic whites.
End stage renal disease due to diabetes is also 2.6 times more prevalent in Black Americans than non-Hispanic white Americans.