How To Reverse Insulin Resistance
If you have insulin resistance, you want to become the oppositemore insulin sensitive .
Physical activity makes you more sensitive to insulin, one reason why its a cornerstone of diabetes management . Dont wait until youre diagnosed with diabetes to start moving more. The earlier you take action , the better off youll be.
Weight loss is important too, as is avoiding high blood sugar, reducing stress, and getting enough sleep .
These lifestyle changes really work. Talk with your health care provider about how to get started.
Managing Type 2 Diabetes
Learning how to live with type 2 diabetes can be challenging, but well help you to discover what works for you. Some people can manage it through healthier eating, being more active or losing weight. But eventually most people will need medication to bring their blood sugar down to their target level.
Learn more about managing your diabetes.
Your Treatment Needs Can Change
Over time, your condition and treatment needs can change. If youve found it difficult to manage your blood sugar with lifestyle changes and other medications, your doctor might prescribe insulin. Following their recommended treatment plan can help you manage your condition and lower your risk of complications.
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Can Diabetes Cause Headaches Or Dizziness
Yes, its possible to develop headaches or dizziness if your blood glucose level is too low usually below 70 mg/dL. This condition is called hypoglycemia. You can read about the other symptoms hypoglycemia causes in this article.Hypoglycemia is common in people with Type 1 diabetes and can happen in some people with Type 2 diabetes who take insulin or medications such as sulfonylureas.
Diabetes Pills Vs Insulin
Its usually not a case of either pills or insulin. Your doctor will make a recommendation based on the type of diabetes you have, how long youve had it, and how much insulin youre making naturally.
Pills may be easier to take than insulin, but each kind comes with potential side effects. It may take a little trial and error to find the one that works best for you. Pills can stop working even if theyve been effective for some time.
If you start out with only pills and your type 2 diabetes worsens, you may need to use insulin as well.
Insulin also has risks. Too much or too little can cause serious problems. Youll have to learn how to monitor your diabetes and make adjustments as necessary.
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Signs And Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
When you have type 2 diabetes your body cant get enough glucose into your cells, so a common symptom is feeling very tired. There are also other symptoms to look out for. These include feeling thirsty, going to the toilet a lot and losing weight without trying to.
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes can develop more slowly than the symptoms of type 1 diabetes, making the condition harder to spot. Thats why a lot of people dont get any symptoms, or dont notice them.
Some people also dont think the symptoms are important, so dont ask for help. This means some people can live for up to 10 years with type 2 diabetes before being diagnosed.
Learn more about the symptoms of diabetes.
When Should I Call My Doctor
Its important to monitor diabetes very closely if youre sick. Even a common cold can be dangerous if it interferes with your insulin and blood sugar levels. Make a sick day plan with your healthcare provider so you know how often to check your blood sugar and what medications to take.
Contact your provider right away if you experience:
- Confusion or memory loss.
- Nausea and vomiting for more than four hours.
- Problems with balance or coordination.
- Severe pain anywhere in your body.
- Trouble moving your arms or legs.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Type 2 diabetes is a disease where your body doesnt make enough insulin and cant use sugar the way it should. Sugar, or glucose, builds up in your blood. High blood sugar can lead to serious health complications. But Type 2 diabetes is manageable. Regular exercise and a healthy diet can help you manage your blood sugar. You may also need medication or insulin. If you have Type 2 diabetes, you should monitor your blood sugar at home regularly and stay in close communication with your healthcare provider.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 03/25/2021.
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When To Take Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes
If you have type 2 diabetes, youre probably aware of how difficult it can be to manage. You may struggle keeping your A1c levels in line despite exercising, managing your weight, eating a healthy diet and taking a prescription medication.
Cause of Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance, stemming usually from genetics, aging, ethnic background, or being overweight. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas to maintain blood sugar levels. It does this by signaling the liver to store or release sugar into the blood and escorting sugar circulating in blood into cells so that it can be used as energy.
Insulin resistance begins when cells wont allow insulin to unlock their door to let sugar into it. Occasionally it doesnt produce symptoms, but more often than not insulin resistance causes blood sugar levels to rise, leading to prediabetes. Between 15 and 30 percent of prediabetes cases will progress to type 2 diabetes within five years, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Treatments for Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes patients are typically prescribed oral medications and lifestyle changes. Generally, insulin is only prescribed after these approaches have become ineffective, as insulin has been linked to weight gain and low blood sugar although some physicians may use it earlier in treatment.
When to Take Insulin for Type 2 Diabetes
Exercise Physical Activity And Weight Loss
Its important for people with Type 2 diabetes to be physically active. They should aim to get in at least 30 minutes of physical activity five days per week. If weight loss is desired, a modest goal for weight loss of five to seven percent of body weight will help decrease insulin resistance, and protect remaining beta cells in the pancreas.
Research in the United Kingdom has shown that just a small amount of weight loss around the pancreas will greatly reduce insulin resistance. Overall weight loss can help reduce visceral fat.
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What Is Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a disease where your body cant use energy from food properly. Your pancreas produces insulin to help your cells use glucose . But over time your pancreas makes less insulin and the cells resist the insulin. This causes too much sugar to build up in your blood. High blood sugar levels from Type 2 diabetes can lead to serious health problems including heart disease, stroke or death.
Do I Have Other Treatment Options For My Diabetes
When medicines and lifestyle changes are not enough to manage your diabetes, a less common treatment may be an option. Other treatments include bariatric surgery for certain people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and an “artificial pancreas” and pancreatic islet transplantation for some people with type 1 diabetes.
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Types Of Insulin Treatments
All types of insulin produce the same effect. They mimic the natural increases and decreases of insulin levels in the body during the day. The makeup of different types of insulin affects how fast and for how long they work.
- Rapid-acting insulin: This type of insulin begins working approximately 15 minutes after injection. Its effects can last between three and four hours. Its often used before a meal.
- Short-acting insulin: You inject this insulin before a meal. It starts working 30 to 60 minutes after you inject it and lasts five to eight hours.
- Intermediate-acting insulin: This type of insulin starts working in one to two hours after injection, and its effects may last 14 to 16 hours.
- Long-acting insulin: This insulin may not start working until about two hours after you inject it. Its effects can last up to 24 hours or longer.
How To Get Free Prescriptions For Diabetes Medicine
Youre entitled to free prescriptions for your diabetes medicine.
To claim your free prescriptions, youll need to apply for an exemption certificate. This is known as a PF57 form. To do this:
- fill in a form at your GP surgery
- you should get the certificate in the post about a week later itll last for 5 years
- take it to your pharmacy with your prescriptions
Save your receipts if you have to pay for diabetes medicine before you receive your exemption certificate. You can claim the money back if you include the receipts along with your completed PF57 form.
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Whats The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that impacts 1.25 million American children and adults. For type 1, the immune system destroys the cells that release insulin, eventually leading to the complete inability to produce insulin in the body. Type 1 generally manifests at a young age and lasts a lifetime.
Type 2 diabetes has multiple contributing factors including genetics and lifestyle factors such as obesity and inactivity. The disease generally arises during adulthood and oftentimes can be reversed or controlled through diet and exercise. 90-95% of those diagnosed with diabetes have type 2.
Type 2 Diabetes And Insulin
If you have type 2 diabetes, you may not need to use insulin straight away. But some people have very high blood sugar levels when they are first diagnosed. Insulin can be used as a short-term treatment to help quickly bring down your blood sugar levels.
Some people may need to take insulin for a particular reason, like during pregnancy, a severe illness, or after surgery. But you may also need to start insulin as a treatment if other medications havent helped managed your blood sugar levels or arent appropriate for you.
If you need insulin it isnt your fault and it doesnt mean you havent managed your diabetes well. Insulin is simply another medication that can help to keep you as healthy as possible. Managing blood sugars effectively is really important in reducing your risk of future diabetes complications and insulin may be the most appropriate treatment choice for you. Many people with type 2 diabetes need to use insulin as treatment at some point.
Its still important to keep going to your appointments and manage your condition with healthy lifestyle choices. Staying active and eating a healthy diet will reduce the risk of complications from your diabetes.
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What Are The Different Ways To Take Insulin
The way you take insulin may depend on your lifestyle, insurance plan, and preferences. You may decide that needles are not for you and prefer a different method. Talk with your doctor about the options and which is best for you. Most people with diabetes use a needle and syringe, pen, or insulin pump. Inhalers, injection ports, and jet injectors are less common.
Travelling With Diabetes Medicines
If you’re going on holiday:
- pack extra medicine speak to your diabetes nurse about how much to take
- carry your medicine in your hand luggage just in case checked-in bags go missing or get damaged
- if you’re flying with a medicine you inject, get a letter from your GP that says you need it to treat diabetes
Page last reviewed: 18 August 2020 Next review due: 18 August 2023
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Diabetes Is A Balancing Act
It can be a bit troublesome to try to get your diet, exercise, and medications straight. All of this effort is to have your A1C stay under 7 percent, so that you are living healthy with diabetes. However, if your A1C starts creeping up, and you have tried many other diabetes medicines in order to try to get your A1C down to no avail, dont balk at starting insulin.
Getting Started With Insulin If You Have Type 2 Diabetes
New to insulin? Learn about insulin dosing and timing and how often to test your blood sugar levels if you have type 2 diabetes.
If you have type 2 diabetes, it is likely that your treatment regimen will change over time as your needs change, and at some point, your healthcare professional may suggest that you start taking insulin. While this might feel scary, there are millions of others living with type 2 diabetes and taking insulin, so its definitely manageable.
High Liver Fat Associated With Impaired Glucose Type 2 Diabetes In Pediatric Obesity
Caprio S. Coexistence of prediabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in pediatric obesity. Presented at: World Congress on Insulin Resistance, Diabetes & Cardiovascular Disease Dec. 2-4, 2021 Los Angeles .
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Children with obesity and a high level of liver fat content are more likely to have impaired glucose tolerance, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes compared with those with normal liver fat content, according to a speaker
Sonia Caprio, MD, professor of pediatric endocrinology at the Yale University School of Medicine, said nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is also associated with alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism for children with obesity and may be an early predictor of type 2 diabetes. Caprio discussed the relationship between NAFLD and diabetes at the World Congress on Insulin Resistance, Diabetes & Cardiovascular Disease.
High liver fat linked to impaired glucose
Data from a study published in JAMA Pediatrics revealed NAFLD may be a predictor for type 2 diabetes and CVD. In a large multicenter cohort of children with biopsy-proven NAFLD, 30% of children had prediabetes and 6.5% had type 2 diabetes. Children with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were more likely to have nonalcoholic steatohepatitis compared with those with normal glucose.
Intrahepatic fat and insulin resistance
Other Types Of Insulin Are Injected
Other than one type of inhalable insulin, all other types of insulin are given by injection. Intermediate-and long-acting insulin can only be injected. Insulin cant be taken in pill form because your digestive enzymes would break it down before it could be used in your body.
Insulin should be injected into the fat just below your skin. You can inject it into the fat of your abdomen, thighs, buttocks, or upper arms.
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Insulin Means Your Diabetes Is Serious
The truth is diabetes is a serious condition no matter how you treat itits just that so few people realize it. Because you can have diabetes and feel just fine , you may think youve got a touch of sugar or some other mild-sounding condition. In reality, high blood sugar poisons the body, damaging the heart, kidney, eyes, and nerves.The point is to make sure your blood sugar is under control, whether it takes diet, exercise, pills, insulin, or all of these combined.
Can Diabetes Kill You
Yes, its possible that if diabetes remains undiagnosed and uncontrolled it can cause devastating harm to your body. Diabetes can cause heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and coma. These complications can lead to your death. Cardiovascular disease in particular is the leading cause of death in adults with diabetes.
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When To Contact A Medical Professional
- Chest pain or pressure
- Red, painful skin that is spreading quickly
These symptoms can quickly get worse and become emergency conditions .
Also call your provider if you have:
- Numbness, tingling, or pain in your feet or legs
- Problems with your eyesight
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Incretin Mimetics And Non
These medications come in oral pill form, or in injectable form, and include the GLP-1 and DPP-4 inhibitors. They slow down digestion and signal the pancreas to make more insulin. These have a desired side effect of weight loss, and can lower A1C, while using the bodys natural blood glucose lowering mechanisms.
Injectables that are for diabetes, but are not insulin help the pancreas to produce more insulin. However, they may cause a side effect of nausea. Extended release injectable medications are given once weekly.
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What’s It Like For Teens With Type 2 Diabetes
Sometimes people who have diabetes feel different from their friends because they need to think about how they eat and how to control their blood sugar levels every day.
Some teens with diabetes want to deny that they even have it. They might hope that if they ignore diabetes, it will just go away. They may feel angry, depressed, or helpless, or think that their parents are constantly worrying about their diabetes management.
If you’ve been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, it’s normal to feel like your world has been turned upside down. Your diabetes care team is there to provide answers and support. Don’t hesitate to ask your doctors, dietitian, and other treatment professionals for advice and tips. It also can help to find support groups where you can talk about your feelings and find out how other teens cope.
Diabetes brings challenges, but teens who have it play sports, travel, date, go to school, and work just like their friends.