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How To Control Type 2 Diabetes

What Are Ways To Prevent Diabetic Retinopathy


Preventing diabetic retinopathy starts with managing blood sugar.

This involves managing diabetes with medication, balanced eating habits, and regular physical activity. You should also monitor your blood sugar on a regular basis and speak with your doctor if your levels are difficult to manage.

A healthy diet consists of:

  • skin conditions

It may also lead to other conditions involving significant vision loss or blindness, such as:

  • Macular edema: an accumulation of fluid in the center of the retina, causing swelling and distorted vision
  • Retinal detachment: a condition where the retina pulls away from supportive tissue in the eye
  • Neovascular glaucoma: a type of secondary glaucoma where new blood vessels grow on the angle of the eye, preventing the drainage of eye fluids
  • Vitreous hemorrhage: new blood vessels bleed and completely block vision

What Types Of Changes To Expect

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition, which means your medications, diet, and exercise goals may also need to be adjusted over time. Initially the pancreas produces extra insulin to make up for insulin resistance, but in most people, the pancreas eventually is unable to make the extra insulin to keep blood sugar levels normal, says , an endocrinologist in practice with Kaiser Permanente in San Francisco.

After a type 2 diabetes diagnosis, your doctor will set blood sugar goals for you, recommend lifestyle changes, and perhaps prescribe medications to help manage blood sugar levels, Dr. Jaffe says. Because type 2 diabetes usually progresses over time, even people who dont need medications at first are likely to need medications eventually, he notes.

The next step in diabetes management, if these strategies arent working, is to change or add medication or add insulin, according to the 2020 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, published in the January 2020 issue of Diabetes Care. Your blood sugar goals might also be adjusted, based on your overall health and history with diabetes control, according to the guidelines.

The guidelines also note that because many people with type 2 diabetes will eventually need insulin, insulin therapy should not be feared or viewed as meaning that youve failed at managing your diabetes.

Diet And Controlling Blood Sugar Levels

Making informed diet choices is one of the main ways in which we can help to control diabetes.

Blood glucose testing can be very helpful for reviewing how different foods affect blood sugar levels.

A good way to do this is to take a test before eating, and then another one or two tests after eating, at intervals of around two and four hours after a meal.

This method of blood glucose testing is known as pre- and post-prandial testing Testing your blood sugar this way across a variety of meals can help you deduce which meals are better for your sugar levels.

You can also begin to work out what portions of a particular food type your body can tolerate without raising your sugar levels too high.

Low-carbohydrate diets have shown to be effective in people with type 2 diabetes, leading to improved blood glucose levels and reducing dependency on medication. award-winning Low Carb Program provides nutrition education and tracking tools to help people with type 2 diabetes reduce their HbA1c and weight.

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Tips For Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

While you cant always prevent type 2 diabetes, there are a few lifestyle tweaks can help delay, or even prevent, the onset. This is true even if you have increased risk factors like prediabetes.

  • Diet. The best kind of diet to prevent type 2 diabetes is a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, healthy carbs, healthy fats, and very little refined sugar.
  • Exercise. According to the

Monitoring Blood Glucose Levels

How to Delay or Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

If you have type 2 diabetes, your GP or diabetes care team will need to take a reading of your blood glucose level about every two to six months.

This will show how stable your glucose levels have been in the recent past and how well your treatment plan is working.

The HbA1c test is used to measure blood glucose levels over the previous two to three months.

HbA1c is a form of haemoglobin, the chemical that carries oxygen in red blood cells, which also has glucose attached to it.

A high HbA1c level means that your blood glucose level has been consistently high over recent weeks, and your diabetes treatment plan may need to be changed.

Your diabetes care team can help you set a target HbA1c level to aim for. This will usually be less than 53 mmol/mol or individualised as agreed with your diabetes team.

Read more about the HbA1c test

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Get The Support You Need

Diabetes Canada is here to help provide information and support so that you can live a healthy life. A positive and realistic attitude toward your diabetes can help you manage it. Talking to other people with type 2 diabetes is a great way to learn, and to feel less alone.

Your health-care team is there to help you. Depending on your needs and the resources available in your community, your team may include a family doctor, diabetes educator , endocrinologist, pharmacist, social worker, exercise physiologist, psychologist, foot-care specialist, eye-care specialist. They can answer your questions about how to manage diabetes and work with you to adjust your food plan, activity and medications

How To Get Free Prescriptions For Diabetes Medicine

You’re entitled to free prescriptions for your diabetes medicine.

To claim your free prescriptions, you’ll need to apply for an exemption certificate. This is known as a PF57 form. To do this:

  • fill in a form at your GP surgery
  • you should get the certificate in the post about a week later it’ll last for 5 years
  • take it to your pharmacy with your prescriptions

Save your receipts if you have to pay for diabetes medicine before you receive your exemption certificate. You can claim the money back if you include the receipts along with your completed PF57 form.

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Take Medicines As Prescribed

Several medicines are available for people with type 2 diabetes. They work in different ways to help the body make or respond to insulin better.

Sometimes pills for diabetes even when combined with diet and exercise aren’t enough to keep blood sugar levels under control. Some people with type 2 diabetes also have to take insulin. The only way to get insulin into the body now is by injection with a needle or with an insulin pump. If someone tried to take insulin as a pill, the acids and digestive juices in the stomach and intestines would break down the medicine, and it wouldn’t work.

Getting insulin injections today is nearly painless, thanks to smaller needles. Insulin pumps cut down on the number of injections needed.

Different kinds of insulin are used for different purposes. The types of insulin you use and how you take it each day will depend on what’s best for you and your daily schedule.

If you take an insulin shot but forget to eat, your blood sugar levels can get too low. So try to avoid skipping meals or snacks. If your parents remind you to eat when you take your insulin, it’s probably because they worry about you, not because they’re trying to nag you!

Your diabetes health care team will teach you how and when to give yourself insulin.

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How Do Carbs Affect Blood Sugar

How To Control Blood Sugars (Type 2 Diabetes)

Carbs in food make your blood sugar levels go higher after you eat them than when you eat proteins or fats. You can still eat carbs if you have diabetes. The amount you can have and stay in your target blood sugar range depends on your age, weight, activity level, and other factors. Counting carbs in foods and drinks is an important tool for managing blood sugar levels. Make sure to talk to your health care team about the best carb goals for you.

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Exercise With Nonoptimal Bg Control


While hyperglycemia can be worsened by exercise in type 1 diabetic individuals who are insulin deficient and ketotic , very few persons with type 2 diabetes develop such a profound degree of insulin deficiency. Therefore, individuals with type 2 diabetes generally do not need to postpone exercise because of high BG, provided that they are feeling well. If they undertake strenuous physical activities with elevated glucose levels , it is prudent to ensure that they are adequately hydrated . If hyperglycemic after a meal, individuals with type 2 diabetes will still likely experience a reduction in BG during aerobic work because endogenous insulin levels will likely be higher at that time .

Evidence statement.

Individuals with type 2 diabetes may engage in PA, using caution when exercising with BG levels exceeding 300 mg/dl without ketosis, provided they are feeling well and are adequately hydrated. ACSM evidence category C. ADA E level recommendation.

Hypoglycemia: causes and prevention.

Evidence statement.

Persons with type 2 diabetes not using insulin or insulin secretagogues are unlikely to experience hypoglycemia related to PA. Users of insulin and insulin secretagogues are advised to supplement with carbohydrate as needed to prevent hypoglycemia during and after exercise. ACSM evidence category C. ADA C level recommendation.

Combined Aerobic And Resistance And Other Types Of Training

Inclusion of both aerobic and resistance exercise training is recommended. Combined training thrice weekly in individuals with type 2 diabetes may be of greater benefit to BG control than either aerobic or resistance exercise alone . However, the total duration of exercise and caloric expenditure was greatest with combined training in all studies done to date , and both types of training were undertaken together on the same days. No studies have yet reported whether daily, but alternating, training is more effective or the BG effect of isocaloric combinations of training. Milder forms of PA, such as yoga and tai chi, may benefit control of BG , although their inclusion is not supported conclusively at this time.

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Putting It All Together

Treating and managing diabetes can seem complicated at times. But your diabetes health care team is there for you. Your diabetes management plan should be easy to understand, detailed, and written down for you so that you can refer to it whenever you need to.

The good news about type 2 diabetes is that if you do the diabetes treatment steps listed above, your blood sugar levels can return to a healthier range. For some people with type 2 diabetes, that can mean not even needing to take diabetes medicines anymore.

You also might hear about alternative treatments for diabetes, such as herbal remedies and vitamin or mineral supplements. These practices can be risky, especially when people stop following the treatment plan their doctor has given them. So get the facts by talking to your diabetes health care team. They keep track of the latest research developments, and will introduce new products as they become available.

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

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Symptoms, treatment, and complications from type 2 diabetes may vary from person to person. The following information will help you learn more about this disease and provide you with helpful tools, assessments and resources.

  • If left untreated or improperly managed, diabetes can lead to a variety of life-threatening complications.

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Will I Need Medication Or Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes

Some people take medication to manage diabetes, along with diet and exercise. Your healthcare provider may recommend oral diabetes medications. These are pills or liquids that you take by mouth. For example, a medicine called metformin helps control the amount of glucose your liver produces.

You can also take insulin to help your body use sugar more efficiently. Insulin comes in the following forms:

  • Injectable insulin is a shot you give yourself. Most people inject insulin into a fleshy part of their body such as their belly. Injectable insulin is available in a vial or an insulin pen.
  • Inhaled insulin is inhaled through your mouth. It is only available in a rapid-acting form.
  • Insulin pumps deliver insulin continuously, similar to how a healthy pancreas would. Pumps release insulin into your body through a tiny cannula . Pumps connect to a computerized device that lets you control the dose and frequency of insulin.

How Does Glucotrust Works To Control Diabetes

is the high level blood glucose controller planned to turn around the effects of type-2 diabetes while aiding in consuming off the pointless body weight. It is the best answer for individuals who are battling with stoutness and diabetes. Glucofort is the FDA-endorsed supplement that aides in settling the glucose levels effectively while diminishing the load to forestall corpulence. Thus, it helps in keeping a solid way of life without diabetes. Moreover, the equation empowers you to remain fit and solid as it uplifts your energy level alongside controlling diabetes.Aside from controlling the glucose levels, it additionally upholds your body to process the supplements actually with the goal that it can balance out the glucose levels in your body. It attempts to address the underlying driver of the sort 2 diabetes and supports you to have controlled diabetes without incidental effects.

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See Your Doctor Regularly

Ask your doctor how often you should see them, then stick with those appointments. Its important for anyone to have a good relationship with their doctor, see them regularly, and feel comfortable asking questions, Dr. Bloomgarden says. Thats especially key with a chronic condition like diabetes.

Dont feel guilty if your blood sugar isnt in control, Dr. Bloomgarden says. Diabetes is a hard disease to have and control. Just make sure youre comfortable with your doctor and that you show up.


Stage : Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

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This is an advanced stage of the disease, in which new blood vessels form in the retina. Since these blood vessels are often fragile, theres a higher risk of fluid leakage. This triggers different vision problems such as blurriness, reduced field of vision, and even blindness.

Diabetic retinopathy doesnt usually cause symptoms during the nonproliferative stages, so its possible to have it and not know it. This is because blood vessels dont always leak in these stages.

Many people dont have symptoms until the disease progresses to proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

However, an eye examination by an eye care specialist or ophthalmologist can detect diabetic retinopathy in its earlier stages, before symptoms become apparent.

Symptoms of proliferative diabetic retinopathy include:

  • depth perception
  • curvature of the cornea

Your doctor will likely also dilate your eyeto examine your optic nerve and retina using special eye drops.

Doctors can also diagnose diabetic retinopathy with fluorescein angiography, which checks for abnormal blood vessel growth or leakage.

Theyll inject a yellow dye into a vein in your arm, allowing the dye to travel through your blood vessels. A special camera takes images of the dye as it travels through the blood vessels in your retina.

Keeping blood sugar within a healthy range can slow the progression of vision loss.

If youre in a nonproliferative stage but experience some eye damage, treatment options might include:

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Record Your Blood Glucose Levels

Recording your blood glucose levels comes highly recommended. By recording your levels you can start to build up a history of results and draw conclusions from results.

Recording your blood sugar levels can help you:

  • Improve dosage decisions
  • Identify which foods are best for your levels and which arent so good
  • Learn from periods of high sugar levels such as during illness
  • See how your sugar levels are affected by exercise

How To Use The Record

First read the shaded bar across the page. This tells you:

  • the name of the test or check-up
  • how often to get the test or check-up
  • what your personal goal is

Then, write down the date and results for each test or check-up you get. Take this card with you on your health carevisits. Show it to your health care team. Talk about your goals and how you are doing.

A1C At least twice each year My goal: ______

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What Should A Type 2 Diabetes Meal Plan Include

Ask your healthcare provider or a nutritionist to recommend a meal plan thats right for you. In general, a Type 2 diabetes meal plans should include:

  • Lean proteins: Proteins low in saturated fats include chicken, eggs and seafood. Plant-based proteins include tofu, nuts and beans.
  • Minimally processed carbohydrates: Refined carbs like white bread, pasta and potatoes can cause your blood sugar to increase quickly. Choose carbs that cause a more gradual blood sugar increase such as whole grains like oatmeal, brown rice and whole-grain pasta.
  • No added salt: Too much sodium, or salt, can increase your blood pressure. Lower your sodium by avoiding processed foods like those that come in cans or packages. Choose salt-free spices and use healthy oils instead of salad dressing.
  • No added sugars: Avoid sugary foods and drinks, such as pies, cakes and soda. Choose water or unsweetened tea to drink.
  • Non-starchy vegetables: These vegetables are lower in carbohydrates, so they dont cause blood sugar spikes. Examples include broccoli, carrots and cauliflower.

Take Your Diabetes Medication Or Insulin Therapy As Prescribed

What is Type 2 Diabetes?

Not everyone with type 2 diabetes needs medication or insulin therapy, but that’s true for many people who have difficulty keeping their blood sugar.

There are a lot of options available here. The first-line type 2 diabetes medication is typically metformin, the Mayo Clinic says. It works by reducing how much glucose your liver makes and improving how your body uses insulin to better manage your blood sugar. There are other types 2 diabetes medications out there, too, such as drugs that help your body produce more insulin or that make your body more sensitive to this important hormone.

Then theres insulin therapy, which means youre actually injecting yourself with insulin to make sure your body has enough. This might involve self-administering insulin with a shot every night, or throughout the day and night, the Mayo Clinic explains. Since everyone is different, your doctor should guide you on the right treatment plan for your health.

Taking medication or being on insulin therapy can be frustrating, but following your prescribed regimen is worth it. Otherwise, youre at risk of developing complications from diabetes, Mark Schutta, M.D., medical director of the Penn Rodebaugh Diabetes Center, tells SELF.

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