How Is Diabetes Diagnosed
The diagnosis of diabetes, whether type 1 or type 2, is relatively simple and made through commonly available blood tests. Most individuals typically come under suspicion due to the presence of cardinal symptoms or through recommended screening.
The following findings are suggestive of a diagnosis of diabetes:
- A random plasma glucose test greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL, and;
- An oral glucose tolerance test with a blood sugar greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL after two hours.
Doctors recommend a repeat of the abnormal test on a different day in order to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes.
What Are The Risk Factors For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Risk factors for type 1 diabetes include:
- Family history: People with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes have a higher risk of developing it themselves.
- Age: Type 1 diabetes can appear at any age, but its most common among children and adolescents.
- Geography: The prevalence of type 1 diabetes increases the farther away you are from the equator.
- Genetics: The presence of certain genes points to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
Youre at risk of developing type 2 diabetes if you:
- have prediabetes, or slightly elevated blood sugar levels
- are carrying excess weight or have obesity
- are Black, Hispanic, American Indian, or Alaska Native
- have an immediate family member with type 2 diabetes
What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Glucose is a type of sugar. It comes from food and also is created in the liver. Glucose travels through the body in the blood. It moves from the blood to cells with the help of a hormone called insulin. Once glucose is in those cells, it can be used for energy. Diabetes mellitus is a condition that causes a buildup of glucose in the blood and makes it difficult for the bodys cells to get enough energy.;There are two primary kinds of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2.
In short, both types result in high levels of blood glucose. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease, caused by genetic and environmental factors, that results in too little insulin being produced by the body. Type 2 is influenced by lifestyle choices and results in the body not being able to use its insulin efficiently. According the Centers for Disease Control , Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes, and type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5%.
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Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
An ever-increasing number of children are developing diabetes. Very young children who develop the disease are most likely to be diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, a lifelong illness characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin, resulting in high blood sugar levels. Type2 diabetes is often seen in older children and adults whose bodies do not produce insulin, do not produce enough insulin, or do not use insulin effectively.
Which Diabetes Type Is Worse
Neither type of diabetes is good news theyre both chronic illnesses that can significantly impact daily life. But type 1 diabetes is often regarded as more serious, requiring daily injections and carrying greater risk to life and health.
One of the few positive factors for type 1 sufferers is that an insulin pump gives greater control over blood sugar levels, as the insulin flow can be adjusted. This means type 1 sufferers can sometimes be a little more flexible with diet than type 2 sufferers generally can.
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Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Have Similar Symptoms
The symptoms for type 1 and type 2 diabetes are similar. However, how quickly symptoms develop will vary between types.;
Saperstein says that indicators of type 1 diabetes develop suddenly, within days or weeks, while those of type 2 diabetes develop more gradually, usually over a period of months to years. Some people may live with type 2 diabetes for years before seeing a doctor for a diagnosis.
If you notice a combination of the following symptoms, this could be a sign of diabetes and you should schedule an appointment with a doctor:;
- Frequent urination;
- Frequent or chronic yeast infections;
- Slow-healing cuts and sores;
- Unexplained weight loss
When your blood sugar is high, the kidneys can’t filter enough glucose. Therefore, extra glucose is released in the form of urination. This excess urination causes dehydration and dry, itchy skin.;
“Blurry vision can also occur due to changing fluid levels in the body leading to some swelling in the lenses of the eye,” Saperstein says.;
If your doctor suspects that you might have diabetes, they’ll order a fasting blood sugar test, which is performed after you’ve had nothing to eat or drink for at least eight hours. Or, they may order an A1c blood test which tests for average blood glucose levels during the past 3 months.
How Are They Alike
Both types of diabetes greatly increase a person’s risk for a range of serious complications. Although monitoring and managing the disease can prevent complications, diabetes remains the leading cause of blindness and kidney failure. It also continues to be a critical risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and foot or leg amputations.
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What Exactly Is Diabetes
Mindy Sotsky, MD, FACE
Diabetes is a chronic disease in which your blood glucose, or;blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat, and insulin is the hormone that allows glucose to enter cells to produce energy.
Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause;serious problems. It can damage your;eyes,;kidneys and;nerves. It can also cause;heart disease and stroke, and sometimes even amputation of a limb. Pregnant women can develop a form of diabetes, called;gestational diabetes.
The CDC estimates that over 30 million people in the U.S. probably have diabetes, and 25% of them do not know it. A blood test called the;A1C;blood test, typically done a few times a year, is the best way to determine if you have diabetes. This test identifies your blood glucose levels so adjustments can be made if theyre not where they should be.
Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors:
Your risk of developing type 2 diabetes is higher if your diet is high in carbs and fat but low in fiber, if you’re not very physically active and/or if you have high blood pressure. High alcohol consumption and age are also risk factors. Though genes do play a role in the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, it can be prevented with the right lifestyle choices, unlike type 1.
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What Is Type 1 Diabetes Who Is At Risk From It
Type 1 diabetes is where the cells in the body that typically produce insulin have been destroyed, leaving the body unable to produce the key hormone.
It’s far less common, affecting around 10 per cent of adults who have the disease.
It is treated with daily insulin injections or an insulin pump.
This form of the disease typically occurs in childhood, or before the age of 40 and is not linked to obesity.
One well-known sufferer of Type 1 diabetes is Prime Minister Theresa May.
She has recently revealed that she has to inject herself with insulin up to five times a day to manage her condition.
While pregnant women can also suffer from gestinational diabetes, when they produce too much blood sugar while carrying their unborn baby.
Model Danielle Lloyd has told how she suffered from the condition while pregnant with her fourth child and was told to have bed rest.
Other Causes Of Diabetes
Although more than 95% of people with diabetes have type 2 or type 1, there are some other rare causes of diabetes:
- Gestational diabetes: This is diabetes that develops when you are pregnant. After the baby is born, this diabetes may go away or remain. Having gestational diabetes increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes later.
Drug-induced diabetes: This occurs when a medication increases your blood glucose levels to the point of diabetes. Examples of medications that can cause diabetes include:
- Antipsychotic medications
- Some HIV medications
In some cases, the diabetes goes away after stopping the medication. In other situations, diabetes may continue as a permanent condition.
Monogenetic diabetes: This is a rare form of diabetes that is caused by a mutation in a single gene. The main forms of monogenetic diabetes are neonatal diabetes mellitus , which affects newborns, and maturity-onset diabetes of the young , which usually affects teenagers or young adults.
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How Is Diabetes Caused
When our bodies process carbohydrates , they are broken down into a substance called Glucose and released into our bloodstream. This is sometimes also referred to as Blood Sugar. This glucose is used by our cells as fuel to keep our bodies going.;
But glucose cant normally enter a cell on its own. Our bodies produce a substance called insulin, which unlocks the cell and allows the glucose into the cell where it can be used. Your body uses insulin to regulate things, so you dont get too much or too little blood sugar at once.
Diabetes happens when something goes wrong with that mechanism. Somehow theres a problem with your insulin supply, meaning your cells arent getting the blood sugar they need. This can potentially be quite dangerous and even life-threatening.
Cause Of Type 2 Diabetes
In contrast to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is characterized by your bodys resistance to the actions of insulin; think of it as having a broken key. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as insulin resistance.
As a result, your pancreas eventually cant keep up with your bodys insulin demands. Eventually, the secretion of insulin significantly decreases, leading to high blood sugar and diabetes.
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How Does Diabetes Affect The Body
There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2.
Both types of diabetes are chronic diseases that affect the way your body regulates blood sugar, or glucose. Glucose is the fuel that feeds your bodys cells, but to enter your cells it needs a key. Insulin is that key.
People with type 1 diabetes dont produce insulin. You can think of it as not having a key.
People with type 2 diabetes dont respond to insulin as well as they should and later in the disease often dont make enough insulin. You can think of it as having a broken key.
People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes may also have numbness and tingling in their hands or feet. Good glucose management significantly reduces the risk of developing numbness and tingling in someone with type 1 diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association .
Although many of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are similar, they present in very different ways.
Many people with type 2 diabetes wont have symptoms for many years, and their symptoms often develop slowly over the course of time. Some people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all and dont discover they have the condition until complications arise.
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes may have similar names, but theyre different diseases with unique causes.
Which Is Worse Type 1 Or 2 Diabetes
It really is hard to distinguish which one is worse as each case is unique. What you need to keep in mind is that type 1 needs insulin to live.
People with type 1 diabetes need to have a regular insulin shot or else may lead to emergency situation and even death.
On the other hand, people with type 2 diabetes need an enormous amount of insulin because their body is resistant to it. Type 1 diabetes is easily diagnosed whereas people with type 2 can go undiagnosed for years.
Do Type 2 diabetics take insulin?
People with diabetes type 2 usually manage their blood glucose level with oral medication and lifestyle modification such as losing weight, quit smoking, and regular exercise.
However, there will come to a point when they will eventually need insulin shots such as in the case of people with symptomatic hyperglycemia, as the beta cell reserve gets depleted after many years of diagnosis with type 2 diabetes, multiple intakes of diabetes medication, and uncontrolled diabetes during pregnancy.
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How Are The Signs And Symptoms Similar
There isn’t a difference between the symptoms of either disease. The “classic” symptoms are the same for both diabetes type 1 and type 2:
- Increased urine output
- Unexplained weight loss
For both type 1 and type 2, early symptoms of untreated diabetes arise due to elevated blood sugar levels and the presence of glucose in the urine. High amounts of glucose in the urine can cause increased urine output and dehydration. Dehydration, in turn, causes increased thirst.
A lack of insulin or an inability of insulin to work properly affects protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin normally encourages the storage of fat and protein, so when there is inadequate insulin or poorly functioning insulin, this eventually leads to weight loss despite an increase in appetite.
Some untreated diabetes patients also experience generalized symptoms like fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. People with diabetes are also at risk for infections of the bladder, skin, and vaginal areas. Changes in blood glucose levels can lead to blurred vision. When blood sugar levels are extremely high, lethargy and coma can result.
Treatment For Type 1 And Type 2
Type I is primarily cured through regular insulin therapy. Since your pancreas is unable to produce insulin on its own, you can inject insulin into your body via insulin injections. Whereas, in the case of Type 2, other treatments such as regular medication, healthy eating, and regular exercises are applicable. That said, Treatment for both Type 1 and Type 2 involved lowering the blood sugar level. Therefore, most treatments for Type II are also effective in treating Type 1 as well.
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Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes
Managing symptoms of type 2 diabetes largely depends on lifestyle choices. This includes eating a healthy diet with lots of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, as well as being active and getting enough exercise. And for some, lifestyle changes are enough to keep blood sugar levels under control.
In a 2014 study published in the American Diabetes Association’s Diabetes Care journal, a randomized control trial demonstrated that a low-carbohydrate, low-saturated fat diet helped participants manage their glucose levels effectively and reduced the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, compared to a diet that was low in fat but contained unrefined carbohydrates.;
For some, weight loss helps reduce risks and symptoms of type 2 diabetes too, Saperstein says. A 2019 review in Advances in Therapy noted that while obesity is one of the main risk factors for type 2 diabetes, aggressive weight loss protocols, like metabolic surgery, should be evaluated extensively.;
Additionally, some medications, including metformin, have been shown to reduce the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Metformin reduces the amount of sugar your liver releases into your blood and improves the body’s response to insulin, which helps in controlling blood glucose levels. However, in order to be effective, medications should be combined with lifestyle improvements like diet and exercise, Saperstein says.
How Are These Diseases Different
Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
Symptoms usually start in childhood or young adulthood. People often seek medical help, because they are seriously ill from sudden symptoms of high blood sugar.
The person may not have symptoms before diagnosis. Usually the disease is discovered in adulthood, but an increasing number of children are being diagnosed with the disease.
Episodes of low blood sugar level are common.
There are no episodes of low blood sugar level, unless the person is taking insulin or certain diabetes medicines.
It cannot be prevented.
It can be prevented or delayed with a healthy lifestyle, including maintaining a healthy weight, eating sensibly, and exercising regularly.
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What Is The Difference Between Type I And Type Ii Diabetes
Even though diabetes is in the media everywhere, it still seems as if there is a lot of confusion about the disease.
People often think of Type I diabetes as “juvenile” diabetes, or the type that children develop, but we do see some adults who develop Type I. Type I diabetes is the type where the body doesn’t make insulin and these folks will need insulin injections. We will talk more about adult onset Type I in upcoming blogs.;;;;;;;;;;
People often think of Type II diabetes as “adult onset” diabetes, even though we are now seeing this type of diabetes in younger people.;Type II diabetes is when the body makes insulin, but cells are resistant to it and so insulin doesn’t work well.;;This type may be treated with lifestyle changes, pills and in some cases insulin.;;;;;;
;If you, or someone you know, is interested in learning more about diabetes, I highly recommend the upcoming Take Care of Your Diabetes conference. Every time I attend this conference I learn something new and I have received great feedback from our clients who attend it! One client called me afterward to tell me how glad she was that she went.;It’s a fun day of inspirational speakers, including the organizer, Dr. Steven Edelman, an endocrinologist who also has diabetes.;;;;;;;;;;;
The conference is very affordable. It includes lunch and will be held on March 7 at the Santa Clara Convention Center. For more information on the TCOYD conference, call 1-800-998-2693 or go to: http://tcoyd.org.;;;;;;