Gregor Mendel: Father Of Genetics
The idea of particulate inheritance of genes can be attributed to the monk who published his work on pea plants in 1865. However, his work was not widely known and was rediscovered in 1901. It was initially assumed that only accounted for large differences, such as those seen by Mendel in his pea plants; and the idea of additive effect of genes was not realised until ‘s paper, “” Mendel’s overall contribution gave scientists a useful overview that traits were inheritable. His pea plant demonstration became the foundation of the study of Mendelian Traits. These traits can be traced on a single locus.
Can Type 2 Diabetes Turn Into Type 1
If you have type 2 diabetes, you might be wondering if it will ever turn into type 1 diabetes. Its understandable that you would think about this, especially if you take insulin. In short, however, the answer is no.
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes, two of the most common forms of diabetes, are actually two very different conditions. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which means that the body attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. As a result, someone with type 1 needs to inject insulin in order to survive. Researchers believe that genetics or environmental factors are the cause of type 1. For the most part, type 1 diabetes is more common in children, adolescents and young adults but anyone at any age can develop type 1 diabetes.
So, type 2 diabetes does not become type 1 diabetes. But it is possible for someones type of diabetes to be misdiagnosed. In other words, someone may be told they have type 2 diabetes, but they actually have type 1 diabetes. Heres why: diabetes symptoms can be the same in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. For example, if your blood sugar is high, you may feel tired and thirsty and you might lose some weight. If you go to the doctor because of your symptoms, you may be quickly diagnosed with type 2 and prescribed a diabetes pill to take. This is more likely to happen if youre an adult and if youre overweight or obese .
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What Are The Complications Of Diabetes
If your blood glucose level remains high over a long period of time, your bodys tissues and organs can be seriously damaged. Some complications can be life-threatening over time.
- Dental problems.
Complications of gestational diabetes:
In the mother:Preeclampsia , risk of gestational diabetes during future pregnancies and risk of diabetes later in life.
In the newborn: Higher-than-normal birth weight, low blood sugar , higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes over time and death shortly after birth.
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What Is The Meaning Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
What is the meaning of type 2 diabetes mellitus? Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease. It is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is also called type 2 diabetes mellitus and adult-onset diabetes. Thats because it used to start almost always in middle- and late-adulthood.
What causes type 2 diabetes mellitus?;Type 2 diabetes is primarily the result of two interrelated problems: Cells in muscle, fat and the liver become resistant to insulin. Because these cells dont interact in a normal way with insulin, they dont take in enough sugar. The pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to manage blood sugar levels.
What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus?;The main difference between the two types of diabetes is that type 1 diabetes is a genetic disorder that often shows up early in life, and type 2 is largely diet-related and develops over time. If you have type 1 diabetes, your immune system is attacking and destroying the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas.
What does mellitus mean in diabetes?;Diabetes mellitus is a condition that occurs when the body cant use glucose normally. Glucose is the main source of energy for the bodys cells.
Favorite Resource For Diet Advice
Giving up some of the foods you once loved is arguably the biggest bummer about receiving a diabetes diagnosis. But with this Harvard-affiliated organizations expert diet guidance, you dont have to.
For more on “bad” foods you can eat in a diabetes diet, check out our article “5 ‘Bad’ Diabetes Foods You Can Enjoy in Moderation.”
Want to get involved? The;IDF, which reaches 168 countries, makes it easy with their advocacy network page. Youll find different organizations that you can work with to help propel diabetes research, legislation, and awareness.
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Diet For Type 2 Diabetes
Diet is an important tool to keep your heart healthy and blood glucose levels within a safe and healthy range. It doesnt have to be complicated or unpleasant.
The diet recommended for people with type 2 diabetes is the same diet just about everyone should follow. It boils down to a few key actions:
Although these options for healthy fats are good for you, theyre also high in calories. Moderation is key. Opting for low-fat dairy products will also keep your fat intake under control. Discover more diabetes-friendly foods, from cinnamon to shirataki noodles.
How Is Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed
If your doctor suspects you have diabetes, you will probably need to have a blood test to assess your glucose level. It is important for diabetes to be diagnosed early, whether its type 1 or type 2 diabetes. That way, it can be better controlled and complications can be avoided.
During a test, blood is taken from a vein and sent to a pathology lab. The tests that can be done include:
- a fasting sugar test fasting is required for at least 8 hours, which may mean not eating or drinking overnight
- a random glucose test taken at any time during the day
- an oral glucose tolerance test a patient who has fasted drinks a sugary drink and then has a blood test done 1 and then 2 hours later
Watch the first video below to learn why its important to detect undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. The second video tells you all about the HbA1c test, another type of blood test that can be used to diagnose diabetes.
Video provided by Lab Tests Online
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Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes
The bodys immune system is responsible for fighting off foreign invaders, such as harmful viruses and bacteria.
In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakes the bodys own healthy cells for foreign invaders. The immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. After these beta cells are destroyed, the body is unable to produce insulin.
Researchers dont know why the immune system sometimes attacks the bodys own cells. It may have something to do with genetic and environmental factors, such as exposure to viruses. Research into autoimmune diseases is ongoing.
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Common Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
- American Diabetes Association.; Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes2009. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:S13-61.
- Becker G.;Type 2 Diabetes:;An Essential Guide for the newly Diagnosed.;2nd ed.;New York, NY:;Marlowe & Company; 2007.
- McCulloch D.;Patient information:;Diabetes type 2:;Overview.;UpToDate Web site.;January 30, 2009.;Available at:;http://www.uptodate.com/patients/content/topic.do?topicKey=~n0K0MIfI1iZs.&selectedTitle=5~150&source=search_result.;Accessed April 20, 2009.
- McCulloch D.;Patient information:;Diabetes mellitus type 2:;Overview.;UpToDate Web site.;December 4, 2008.;Available at:;http://www.uptodate.com/patients/content/topic.do?topicKey=~X0jjLnBn4._ko&selectedTitle=4~150&source=search_result.;Accessed April 20, 2009.
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Is There An Age Where Im More At Risk Of Type 2
Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes as it was primarily seen in middle-aged adults over the age of 40.
However, in recent years, cases of type 2 diabetes have become more common in young adults, teens and children. This increase has been connected to climbing levels of;obesity
- See our guide on diabetes risk factors for more information.
What Are The Treatments For Type 2 Diabetes
Treatment for type 2 diabetes involves managing your blood sugar levels. Many people are able to do this by living a healthy lifestyle. Some people may also need to take medicine.
- A healthy lifestyle includes following a healthy eating plan and getting regular physical activity. You need to learn how to balance what you eat and drink with physical activity and diabetes medicine, if you take any.
- Medicines for diabetes include oral medicines, insulin, and other injectable medicines. Over time, some people will need to take more than one type of medicine to control their diabetes.
- You will need to check your blood sugar regularly. Your health care provider will tell you how often you need to do it.
- It’s also important to keep your blood pressure and cholesterol levels close to the targets your provider sets for you. Make sure to get your screening tests regularly.
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Can Diabetes Cause Headaches Or Dizziness
Yes, its possible to develop headaches or dizziness if your blood glucose level is too low usually below 70 mg/dL. This condition is called hypoglycemia. You can read about the other symptoms hypoglycemia causes in this article.Hypoglycemia is common in people with Type 1 diabetes and can happen in some people with Type 2 diabetes who take insulin or medications such as sulfonylureas.
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Can You Be Born With Diabetes Is It Genetic
You arent born with diabetes, but Type 1 diabetes usually appears in childhood. Prediabetes and diabetes develop slowly over time years. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy.Scientists do believe that genetics may play a role or contribute to the development of Type 1 diabetes. Something in the environment or a virus may trigger its development. If you have a family history of Type 1 diabetes, you are at higher risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. If you have a family history of prediabetes, Type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes, youre at increased risk of developing prediabetes, Type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes.
Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Cured
There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but some people are able to put their diabetes into remission. This means that your blood sugar levels are healthy and you dont need to take diabetes medication any more. Remission can be life-changing, but its not possible for everyone.
Learn more about diabetes remission.;
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Receiving A Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis
Whether or not you have prediabetes, you should see your doctor right away if you have the symptoms of diabetes. Your doctor can get a lot of information from blood work. Diagnostic testing may include the following:
- Hemoglobin A1C test.This test measures average blood glucose levels for the previous two or three months. You dont need to fast for this test, and your doctor can diagnose you based on the results. Its also called a glycosylated hemoglobin test.
- Fasting plasma glucose test. This test measures how much glucose is in your plasma. You may need to fast for eight hours before having it.
- Oral glucose tolerance test. During this test, your blood is drawn three times: before, one hour after, and two hours after you drink a dose of glucose. The test results show how well your body deals with glucose before and after the drink.
If you have diabetes, your doctor will provide you with information about how to manage the disease, including:
- how to monitor blood glucose levels on your own
- dietary recommendations
- physical activity recommendations
- information about any medications that you need
You may need to see an endocrinologist who specializes in the treatment of diabetes. Youll probably need to visit your doctor more often at first to make sure your treatment plan is working.
If you dont already have an endocrinologist, the Healthline FindCare tool can help you find a physician in your area.
What Types Of Diabetes Require Insulin
People with Type 1 diabetes need insulin to live. If you have Type 1 diabetes, your body has attacked your pancreas, destroying the cells that make insulin. If you have Type 2 diabetes, your pancreas makes insulin, but it doesnt work as it should. In some people with Type 2 diabetes, insulin may be needed to help glucose move from your bloodstream to your bodys cells where its needed for energy. You may or may not need insulin if you have gestational diabetes. If you are pregnant or have Type 2 diabetes, your healthcare provider will check your blood glucose level, assess other risk factors and determine a treatment approach which may include a combination of lifestyle changes, oral medications and insulin. Each person is unique and so is your treatment plan.
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Risk Factors Of Type 2 Diabetes
There are several factors that can affect your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Because the symptoms of type 2 diabetes are not always obvious, its really important to be aware of these risk factors. They can include:;
- your age
- if you have a parent, brother, sister or child with diabetes
- your ethnicity
Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis And Tests
Your doctor can test your blood for signs of type 2 diabetes. Usually, theyâll test you on 2 days to confirm the diagnosis. But if your blood glucose is very high or you have many symptoms, one test may be all you need.
- A1c. It’s like an average of your blood glucose over the past 2 or 3 months.
- Fasting plasma glucose. This is also known as a fasting blood sugar test. It measures your blood sugar on an empty stomach. You won’t be able to eat or drink anything except water for 8 hours before the test.
- Oral glucose tolerance test . This checks your blood glucose before and 2 hours after you drink something sweet to see how your body handles the sugar.
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Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Prevented
A healthy lifestyle can prevent almost all cases of type 2 diabetes. A large research study called the Diabetes Prevention Program, found that people who made intensive lifestyle changes including diet and exercise reduced their risk of developing diabetes by 58%. Those over 60 years old seemed to experience extra benefit; they reduced their risk by 71%. In comparison, people who were given the drug metformin for diabetes prevention only reduced their risk by 31%.
What Are The Causes And Effects Of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or used for energy. With diabetes, your body either doesnt make enough insulin or cant effectively use the insulin it does make.
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Can Diabetes Cause Hair Loss
Yes, its possible for diabetes to cause hair loss. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to persistently high blood glucose levels. This, in turn, leads to blood vessel damage and restricted flow, and oxygen and nutrients cant get to the cells that need it including hair follicles. Stress can cause hormone level changes that affect hair growth. If you have Type 1 diabetes, your immune system attacks itself and can also cause a hair loss condition called alopecia areata.
Impact Of Type 2 Diabetes
As stated above, type 2 diabetes can lead to a greater chance of health problems which could in some cases affect your ability to work and could therefore affect your personal income.
Another factor to bear in mind is that increased care may be needed, from your family or from a carer, particularly as you get older.
With the right support and good diabetes management, the potential negative effects of type 2 diabetes can be minimised.
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Industry Influence On Research
In 2015, the New York Times published an article on the , a nonprofit founded in 2014 that advocated for people to focus on increasing exercise rather than reducing calorie intake to avoid obesity and to be healthy. The organization was founded with at least $1.5M in funding from the , and the company has provided $4M in research funding to the two founding scientists Gregory A. Hand and since 2008.
Which Specialties Of Doctors Treat Type 2 Diabetes
Adult and pediatric endocrinologists, specialists in treating hormone imbalances and disorders of the endocrine system, are experts in helping patients with diabetes manage their disease. People with the disease also may seek care from a number of primary care providers including family or internal medicine practitioners, naturopathic doctors, or nurse practitioners. When complications arise, these patients often consult other specialists, including neurologists, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, acupuncturists, surgeons, and cardiologists. Nutritionists, integrative and functional medicine doctors, and physical activity experts such as personal trainers are also important members of a diabetes treatment team. It is important to interview new health care professionals about their experience, expertise, and credentials to make sure they are well qualified to help you.
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