Complications Of Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes can cause serious long-term health problems. It’s the most common cause of vision loss and blindness in people of working age.
Everyone with diabetes aged 12 or over should be invited to have their eyes screened once a year for diabetic retinopathy.
Diabetes is also responsible for most cases of kidney failure and lower limb amputation, other than accidents.
Read more about the complications of type 2 diabetes
Alcohol And Blood Sugar
Alcohol can both elevate and lower blood glucose levels.
- Alcoholic drinks are high in kilojoules as are many popular mixer drinks. As a result, alcoholic drinks can elevate blood sugar as well as contribute to weight gain and elevated blood pressure. It is preferable to choose low alcohol drinks and low joule/diet mixers.
- Excessive alcohol in combination with insulin or oral diabetes medicines can also cause hypoglycaemia . Hypoglycaemia can also result from drinking even small amounts of alcohol on an empty stomach, so if you drink alcohol, you should make sure you eat at the same time to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia.
People with type 2 diabetes should limit their intake of alcohol to 2 standard drinks per day and aim for regular alcohol-free days.
What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes aren’t always obvious and they can take a long time to develop. Sometimes, there are no symptoms. It’s important to remember that not everyone with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes develops these warning signs, and not everyone who has these symptoms necessarily has type 2 diabetes.
But kids or teens who develop type 2 diabetes may:
- Need to pee a lot. The kidneys respond to high levels of glucose in the blood by flushing out the extra glucose in urine . Kids with high blood sugar levels need to pee more often and make more pee.
- Drink a lot of liquids. Because they’re peeing so often and losing so much fluid, they can become very thirsty and drink a lot in an attempt to keep the levels of body water normal.
- Feel tired often. This is because the body can’t use glucose for energy properly.
Risk Factors Of Type 2 Diabetes
There are several factors that can affect your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Because the symptoms of type 2 diabetes are not always obvious, its really important to be aware of these risk factors. They can include:
- your age
- if you have a parent, brother, sister or child with diabetes
- your ethnicity
Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
First line treatment for type 2 diabetes typically includes a combination of diet modification with regular and appropriate exercise.
The NICE guidelines state that treatment for type 2 diabetes should take into account an individuals needs and preferences into account. People with diabetes should be given the opportunity to make informed decisions about their care and work together with healthcare professionals.
The NICE guidelines encourage having high-fibre, low-glycemic-index carbohydrate in the diet. This allows a good amount of flexibility and it is possible to follow a range of diets, including lower-carb and low-calorie, whilst ensuring you get a good source of low-GI foods such as vegetables, beans and pulses.
Your health team should help you with setting recommendations for carbohydrate and alcohol intake that work for you.
Favorite Resource For Diet Advice
Giving up some of the foods you once loved is arguably the biggest bummer about receiving a diabetes diagnosis. But with this Harvard-affiliated organizations expert diet guidance, you dont have to.
For more on “bad” foods you can eat in a diabetes diet, check out our article “5 ‘Bad’ Diabetes Foods You Can Enjoy in Moderation.”
Want to get involved? The IDF, which reaches 168 countries, makes it easy with their advocacy network page. Youll find different organizations that you can work with to help propel diabetes research, legislation, and awareness.
Favorite Alternative Medicine Resource
Want to give the ketogenic diet a whirl to better manage diabetes? This pioneering program from the Cleveland Clinic offers a way to do just that, with trained counselors who can help you adjust your diet and medication along the way.
The FOMO on diabetes products ends now. This feature by the magazine and website Diabetes Forecast rounds up the best of the best in CGMs , glucagon kits, insulin pens, and more.
Medications For Type 2 Diabetes
In some cases, lifestyle changes are enough to keep type 2 diabetes under control. If not, there are several medications that may help. Some of these medications are:
- metformin, which can lower your blood glucose levels and improve how your body responds to insulin its the preferred treatment for most people with type 2 diabetes
- sulfonylureas, which are oral medications that help your body make more insulin
- meglitinides, which are fast-acting, short-duration medications that stimulate your pancreas to release more insulin
- thiazolidinediones, which make your body more sensitive to insulin
- dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, which are milder medications that help reduce blood glucose levels
- glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, which slow digestion and improve blood glucose levels
- sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, which help prevent the kidneys from reabsorbing glucose into the blood and sending it out in your urine
Each of these medications can cause side effects. It may take some time to find the best medication or combination of medications to treat your diabetes.
If your body cant make enough insulin, you may need insulin therapy. You may only need a long-acting injection you can take at night, or you may need to take insulin several times per day. Learn about other medications that can help you manage diabetes.
How Can I Help My Child
Diabetes is a chronic condition that needs close attention. You’ll be your child’s most important partner in learning to live with it.
Kids or teens with type 2 diabetes may need to:
- Get to and maintain a normal body weight.
- Monitor blood sugar levels regularly.
- Eat a healthy diet, as determined by the care team.
- Get regular physical activity to achieve a healthy weight and allow insulin to work more effectively.
- Take insulin or other medicines that help the body respond to insulin more effectively.
- Work closely with their doctors and diabetes health care team to get the best possible diabetes control.
- Be watched for signs of complications and other diabetes-related health problems.
Living with diabetes is a challenge for anyone, but kids and teens often have special issues to deal with. Young kids might not understand why they need blood tests and medicines. They might be scared, angry, and uncooperative.
Teens may feel different from their peers and want a more carefree lifestyle than their diabetes allows. Even when they faithfully follow their treatment schedule, they might feel frustrated if the natural body changes of puberty make their diabetes somewhat harder to control.
Having a child with diabetes may seem overwhelming at times, but you’re not alone. If you have questions or problems, reach out to the diabetes health care team they can help with medical issues, and are there to support and help you and your child.
The Health Risks Of Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a lifelong condition. High blood glucose levels over a long period of time can cause:
- reduced blood supply to the limbs, leading to amputation;
- nerve damage;
- erectile dysfunction; and
Although there is no cure for diabetes, the condition can be managed by medication and/or insulin, and by making healthy lifestyle choices.
Is There An Age Where Im More At Risk Of Type 2
Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes as it was primarily seen in middle-aged adults over the age of 40.
However, in recent years, cases of type 2 diabetes have become more common in young adults, teens and children. This increase has been connected to climbing levels of obesity
- See our guide on diabetes risk factors for more information.
Microvascular And Macrovascular Complications
Longer survival times and development of type 2 diabetes at younger ages increase the risk of developing duration-dependent complications. In UKPDS 16, 18% of patients, all of whom were presumed to be clinically healthy, had a clinical end point within 6 years of diagnosis.
UKPDS 35 showed highly significant associations between development of diabetes complications, including death, across the broad range of exposure to glycemia, with no evidence of a threshold. Conversely, each 1% reduction in mean A1C was associated with reduction in risk of 21% for any end point related to diabetes .
The role of complications on disease progression and failure has not been well studied. A change in insulin sensitivity and clearance is well recognized in renal failure and clearance is well recognized. However, the impact of these changes on the natural history of diabetes itself needs to be studied. Many patients with established complications tend to be poorly controlled, and factors such as glucose toxicity may play a role in disease progression as discussed above. In addition, various cardiovascular drugs such as diuretics and -blockers may affect -cell function adversely.
Prevalence In Children And Young Adults
Type 2 diabetes used to be prevalent only in adults and was once called adult-onset diabetes. Now that its becoming more common in children, its simply called type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is more common in children and young adults, and its believed to be caused by an autoimmune reaction. However, type 2 diabetes is rising in incidence, attributed in part to poor lifestyle habits.
According to the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, 5,300 people from ages 10 to 19 were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2011 and 2012.
A 2012 study published in the ADA Journal Diabetes Care considered the potential future number of diabetes cases in people under the age of 20. The study found that, at current rates, the number of people under the age of 20 with type 2 diabetes could increase by up to 49 percent by 2050. If the rates of incidence increase, the number of type 2 cases in youth could quadruple.
Type 2 diabetes may result from a culmination of health issues and an unhealthy lifestyle. Specific factors can increase your personal risk, but an unhealthy lifestyle is the broader issue in many cases.
Type 2 Diabetes And Complications
Like type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes carries the risk of diabetes complications over time.
The most common complications of type 2 diabetes include:
In fact, by the time they are diagnosed, 50% of people with type 2 diabetes show early signs of these health conditions.
The list of complications, which also includes depression and sexual dysfunction, is not pleasant but their risks can be reduced through good diabetes control and attending all diabetic screening appointments.
As with many chronic diseases, early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is beneficial for treatment. Before type 2 diabetes develops, most patients exhibit pre-diabetic symptoms, and if treatment commences at this stage, diabetes of this type can be preventable.
- Almost 1 in 3 people with type 2 diabetes develops overt kidney disease
- Within 20 years of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, 60% of people diagnosed have some degree of retinopathy
Therapeutic Education About Treatment Self
Collaboration between people with diabetes and their families and healthcare teams is essential for optimizing the treatment and, at the same time, for integrating it into their day-to-day life in terms of regular eating habits, timetables and physical activity.
Therapeutic education in diabetes is a learning process that provides the knowledge and skills required by people with diabetes and their families so they may actively take part in everyday treatment decisions.
Is Type 2 Diabetes Serious
Around 90% of people with diabetes in the UK have type 2. It is serious condition and can be lifelong.
If left untreated, high sugar levels in your blood can seriously damage parts of your body, including your eyes, heart and feet. These are called the complications of diabetes. But with the right treatment and care, you can live well with type 2 diabetes and reduce your risk of developing them.
Learn more about diabetes complications.
Healthy Eating To Control Blood Glucose Levels
Your blood glucose is affected by:
- what you eat;
- how much exercise you do; and
- your medications or insulin.
Eating too much food can make your blood glucose go too high. Drinking alcohol without eating any food can make your blood glucose drop too low.
Ways that you can try to maintain a relatively stable and healthy blood glucose level are:
- eat at the same times each day;
- eat roughly the same amount of food each day;
- know which foods contain carbohydrates, fats and proteins;
- eat low-GI foods to keep your blood glucose levels down;
- eat carbohydrates at every meal to spread your intake;
- dont miss meals or snacks;
- avoid high-sugar items, like lollies, soft drinks and desserts;
- exercise at roughly the same time each day;
- balance your food intake with your level of physical activity; and
- take medicines at the same time each day.
It is usually recommended that people with diabetes see a dietitian to develop a healthy eating plan that will help control blood glucose levels.
Insulin Resistance And Insufficient Insulin Production
Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes means the signal insulin gives to a cell is weakened. This results in less glucose uptake by muscle and fat cells and a reduction in insulin mediated activities inside cells. Compounding this problem of resistance, there is additional defect in insulin production and secretion by the insulin producing cells, the beta cells in the pancreas.
As a group, everyone with with type 2 diabetes has both insulin resistance and an inability to overcome the resistance by secreting more insulin. But any given individual with type 2 may have more resistance than insulin insufficiency or the opposite, more insulin insufficiency than resistance. And the problems may be mild or severe. It is believed that the wide range of clinical presentation is because there are many, many genetic causes and combinations of genetic causes of type 2 diabetes. At present there is no single genetic test for type 2 diabetes. The diagnosis is made on the basis of the individual having clinical features consistent with type 2 diabetes, and by excluding other forms of diabetes.
Will I Need Medication Or Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes
Some people take medication to manage diabetes, along with diet and exercise. Your healthcare provider may recommend oral diabetes medications. These are pills or liquids that you take by mouth. For example, a medicine called metformin helps control the amount of glucose your liver produces.
You can also take insulin to help your body use sugar more efficiently. Insulin comes in the following forms:
- Injectable insulin is a shot you give yourself. Most people inject insulin into a fleshy part of their body such as their belly. Injectable insulin is available in a vial or an insulin pen.
- Inhaled insulin is inhaled through your mouth. It is only available in a rapid-acting form.
- Insulin pumps deliver insulin continuously, similar to how a healthy pancreas would. Pumps release insulin into your body through a tiny cannula . Pumps connect to a computerized device that lets you control the dose and frequency of insulin.
Receiving A Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis
Whether or not you have prediabetes, you should see your doctor right away if you have the symptoms of diabetes. Your doctor can get a lot of information from blood work. Diagnostic testing may include the following:
- Hemoglobin A1C test.This test measures average blood glucose levels for the previous two or three months. You dont need to fast for this test, and your doctor can diagnose you based on the results. Its also called a glycosylated hemoglobin test.
- Fasting plasma glucose test. This test measures how much glucose is in your plasma. You may need to fast for eight hours before having it.
- Oral glucose tolerance test. During this test, your blood is drawn three times: before, one hour after, and two hours after you drink a dose of glucose. The test results show how well your body deals with glucose before and after the drink.
If you have diabetes, your doctor will provide you with information about how to manage the disease, including:
- how to monitor blood glucose levels on your own
- dietary recommendations
- physical activity recommendations
- information about any medications that you need
You may need to see an endocrinologist who specializes in the treatment of diabetes. Youll probably need to visit your doctor more often at first to make sure your treatment plan is working.
If you dont already have an endocrinologist, the Healthline FindCare tool can help you find a physician in your area.
Relation To Theory Of Evolution
When proposed his theory of in 1859, one of its major problems was the lack of an underlying mechanism for heredity. Darwin believed in a mix of blending inheritance and the inheritance of acquired . Blending inheritance would lead to uniformity across populations in only a few generations and then would remove variation from a population on which natural selection could act. This led to Darwin adopting some Lamarckian ideas in later editions of and his later biological works. Darwin’s primary approach to heredity was to outline how it appeared to work rather than suggesting mechanisms.
Darwin’s initial model of heredity was adopted by, and then heavily modified by, his cousin , who laid the framework for the school of heredity. Galton found no evidence to support the aspects of Darwin’s pangenesis model, which relied on acquired traits.
The inheritance of acquired traits was shown to have little basis in the 1880s when cut the off many generations of and found that their offspring continued to develop tails.
How Exactly Does Type 2 Diabetes Develop
Insulin resistance is the cause of both prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Ok, so what is the cause of insulin resistance? Insulin resistance is now accepted to be closely associated with the accumulation of fat within our muscle cells. This fat toxicity inside of our muscles is a major factor in the cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, as it interferes with the action of insulin. Ive explored how fat makes our muscles insulin resistant , how that fat can come from the fat we eat or the fat we wear , and how not all fats are the same . Its the type of fat found predominantly in animal fats, relative to plant fats, that appears to be especially deleterious with respect to fat-induced insulin insensitivity. But this insulin resistance in our muscles starts years before diabetes is diagnosed.
In my video, Diabetes as a Disease of Fat Toxicity, you can see that insulin resistance starts over a decade before diabetes is actually diagnosed, as blood sugar levels slowly start creeping up. And then, all of the sudden, the pancreas conks out, and blood sugars skyrocket. What could underlie this relatively rapid failure of insulin secretion?
Now, it should make sense why the American Diabetes Association recommends reduced intake of dietary fat as a strategy for reducing the risk for developing diabetes.
Here are some videos on prevention:
Development Of Type 2 Diabetes
The development of type 2 diabetes is thought to be a progression from normal blood sugars to pre-diabetes to a diagnosis of overt diabetes. These stages are defined by blood sugar levels.
The timeline to developing an elevated blood sugar depends on many environmental factors and also on how strong the gene traits are for diabetes. Ultimately, pre-diabetes and diabetes occur when the pancreas cannot make enough insulin to overcome the insulin resistance. Historically pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes has been diagnosed when individuals are older; however, because of a wide-spread epidemic of obesity which causes insulin resistance, the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is occurring more frequently at younger and younger ages.
People born with the genetic traits for diabetes are considered to be pre-disposed. Genetically predisposed people may have normal blood sugar levels, but many will have other markers of insulin resistance such, as elevated triglycerides and hypertension. When environmental factors are introduced, such as weight gain, lack of physical activity, or pregnancy, they are likely to develop diabetes.
Some individuals with other types of diabetes may be misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes. Up to 10% of individuals who are initially diagnosed with type 2 diabetes may actually have an adult onset of type 1 diabetes also known as LADA or Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults.
Statistics About Type 2 Diabetes
The report the following statistics about diabetes in the United States:
- Over 30 million people have diabetes. Thats around 10 percent of the population.
- One in four people have no idea they have diabetes.
- Prediabetes affects 84.1 million adults, and 90 percent of them are unaware of it.
- Non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and Native American adults are to have diabetes as non-Hispanic white adults.
The reports the following statistics:
- In 2017, diabetes cost the United States $327 billion in direct medical costs and reduced productivity.
- The average medical expenses for people with diabetes are about 2.3 times higher than they would be in the absence of diabetes.
- Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, either as the underlying cause of death or as a contributing cause of death.
Diabetes impact is widespread. It touches the lives of nearly half-a-billion of people around the world. View some infographics that shine a light on other diabetes statistics you should know.
What Health Problems Can People With Diabetes Develop
Following a good diabetes care plan can help protect against many diabetes-related health problems. However, if not managed, diabetes can lead to problems such as
- heart disease and stroke
- gum disease and other dental problems
- sexual and bladder problems
Many people with type 2 diabetes also have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease . Losing weight if you are overweight or obese can improve NAFLD. Diabetes is also linked to other health problems such as sleep apnea, depression, some types of cancer, and dementia.
You can take steps to lower your chances of developing these diabetes-related health problems.
Managing Blood Pressure And Cholesterol
Keeping your blood pressure and cholesterol within the recommended range is very important to help prevent long-term problems, especially to your heart, blood vessels and kidneys.Regular diabetes checks of your eyes, feet , heart, blood pressure, kidneys and long-term blood glucose are an important part of diabetes management. Your doctor and diabetes educator will help you arrange these tests.
How Can I Manage My Type 2 Diabetes
Managing your blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol, and quitting smoking if you smoke, are important ways to manage your type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle changes that include planning healthy meals, limiting calories if you are overweight, and being physically active are also part of managing your diabetes. So is taking any prescribed medicines. Work with your health care team to create a diabetes care plan that works for you.
What Is The Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes
Treatment may vary depending on the stage in which the disease was first diagnosed and how it is evolving. Therefore, people with type 2 diabetes will follow different treatment plans:
- A healthy diet that helps control body weight in combination with regular physical exercise and oral medicines .
- If the first treatment is not enough, then the patients plan will incorporate new oral or injectable medicines.
- If the second treatment is insufficient, then insulin might have to be added to the treatment regime.