What Is Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults
Many doctors consider LADA the adult form of type 1 diabetes because its also an autoimmune condition.
As in type 1 diabetes, the islet cells in the pancreas of people with LADA are destroyed. However, this process occurs much more slowly. Once it starts, it can take several months up to several years for the pancreas to stop being able to make insulin.
Other experts consider LADA somewhere in between type 1 and type 2 and even call it type 1.5 diabetes. These researchers believe that diabetes can occur along a spectrum.
Researchers are still trying to figure out the details, but in general, LADA is known to:
- develop in adulthood
- have a slower course of onset than type 1 diabetes
- often occur in people who arent overweight
- often occur in people who dont have other metabolic issues, such as high blood pressure and high triglycerides
- result in a positive test for antibodies against the islet cells
The symptoms of LADA are similar to those of type 2 diabetes, including:
- excessive thirst
What Is An Infant Of A Mother With Diabetes
An infant of a mother with diabetes is a baby who is born to a mother with diabetes. Because the mother has diabetes, the baby is at risk for problems.
People with diabetes have high levels of sugar in their blood . Over time, this can lead to serious health problems. Keeping your blood sugar under control lowers your risk for complications. You can manage diabetes by eating a nutritious diet, getting regular exercise, and taking medicine.
Two types of diabetes can happen in pregnancy. These are:
Gestational diabetes.;In this condition, you dont have diabetes before pregnancy. You develop;it during;pregnancy. This type of diabetes goes away after your baby is born.
Pre-gestational diabetes.;In this condition, you have diabetes before getting pregnant. You may have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
People with type 1 diabetes dont make insulin. Your body needs insulin to use blood sugar. Youll need to take insulin shots.
People with type 2 diabetes cant use the insulin they make. Or their bodies dont make enough insulin. Youll need blood sugar-lowering medicine and possibly insulin. ;
Its important to manage your blood sugar during pregnancy. This can lower your babys risk for problems. ;
If You Have Gestational Diabetes How Can You Help Prevent Getting Diabetes Later In Life
For most women, gestational diabetes goes away after giving birth. But having it makes you more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Type 2 diabetes is the most common kind of diabetes. If you have type 2 diabetes, your pancreas makes too little insulin or your body becomes resistant to it . ;
Heres what you can do to help reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy:
- Breastfeed. Breastfeeding can help you lose weight after pregnancy. Being overweight makes you more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.
- Get tested for diabetes 4 to 12 weeks after your baby is born. If the test is normal, get tested again every 1 to 3 years.
- Get to and stay at a healthy weight.
- Talk to your provider about medicine that may help prevent type 2 diabetes.;
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Association Of Birth Weight And Type 2 Diabetes In Rochester Minnesota
There is renewed interest in the relationship between birth weight and type 2 diabetes. Previous case-control studies of elderly European residents showed a linear association between low birth weight and type 2 diabetes. More recent cohort studies in Pima Indians have shown a U-shaped curve between birth weight and diabetes, where both low and high birth weight were shown to increase the risk for developing type 2 diabetes. In addition, a few studies found an association between high birth weight and type 2 diabetes in Caucasian populations. Using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project , we examined the association of birth weight and type 2 diabetes in individuals who were born and developed type 2 diabetes while residing in Rochester, Minnesota.
Genetic Testing For Neonatal Diabetes
Genetic testing for neonatal diabetes is offered free of charge for all people diagnosed with diabetes before 9 months of age. Confirming the diagnosis by molecular genetic testing is essential before considering any change to treatment.
More information about neonatal diabetes can be found at Diabetes Genes.
So if you or your child were;diagnosed with diabetes before 6 months old, ask your diabetes team for a test for neonatal diabetes. Your team can take a blood sample and send it to the Peninsula Medical School based at the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital for analysis. The test is free. Or you can visit Diabetes Genes, as the site;will also tell your doctor how to take your blood and send it to the team at Exeter.
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What Clinical Trials Are Open
Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov.
This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.
The NIDDK would like to thank:Boyd E. Metzger, MD, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Is Genetic Testing Useful For Diabetes Why It Depends On The Form Of The Disease
The genetic mutations that cause diabetes involve the proteins responsible for insulin production or the ability of the body to use insulin. Mutations cause the proteins to function improperly. Genetic testing can identify these mutations in certain cases, but the usefulness of the information they provide varies. First, it depends on whether the form of diabetes is monogenic or polygenic.
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What Is Neonatal Diabetes
Neonatal diabetes mellitus is a rare form of diabetes that occurs within the first 6 months of life. Our bodies need insulin to help our cells make energy. Infants with this condition do not produce enough insulin, which increases blood glucose levels.
Neonatal diabetes is often mistaken as type 1 diabetes, which is much more common. But type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children older than 6 months.
- Half of babies diagnosed with neonatal diabetes have a lifelong condition. This is called permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus. It occurs in 1 in 260,000 babies in some areas of the world.
- For the other half, the condition disappears within the first twelve weeks of life: but it can reoccur later. This is called transient neonatal diabetes mellitus.
Fetuses with neonatal diabetes do not grow as well in the womb, and these newborns may be small for their gestational age. This is called intrauterine growth restriction.
Key Points About An Infant Of A Mother With Diabetes
Two types of diabetes can happen in pregnancy. One is gestational diabetes and the other is pre-gestational diabetes.
All women are screened for gestational diabetes. This is done between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy. ;
Having diabetes during pregnancy can harm your baby.
Your babys treatment depends on how well you control your blood sugar in the last part of pregnancy and during labor and delivery.
Controlling your blood sugar is the best way to reduce your babys risks.
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When To Contact A Medical Professional
If you are pregnant and getting regular prenatal care, routine testing will show if you develop gestational diabetes.
If you are pregnant and have diabetes that is not under control, call your provider right away.
If you are pregnant and are not receiving prenatal care, call a provider for an appointment.
What Is Type 1 Diabetes
The two types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. Both make blood sugar levels higher than normal but they do so in different ways.
In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas loses its ability to make insulin because the body’s;immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin. No one knows exactly why this happens, but scientists think it has something to do with genes. But just getting the genes for diabetes isn’t usually enough. A person probably would then have to be exposed to something else like a virus to get type 1 diabetes.
In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas still makes insulin but the body doesn’t respond to it normally. Glucose is less able to enter the cells and do its job of supplying energy . This raises the blood sugar level, so the pancreas works hard to make even more insulin. Eventually, this strain can make the pancreas unable to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels normal.
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Target Blood Glucose Levels During Pregnancy
Recommended daily target blood glucose numbers for most pregnant women with diabetes are
- Before meals, at bedtime, and overnight: 90 or less
- 1 hour after eating: 130 to 140 or less
- 2 hours after eating: 120 or less3
Ask your doctor what targets are right for you. If you have type 1 diabetes, your targets may be higher so you dont develop low blood glucose, also called hypoglycemia.
I Do Not Have Diabetes But My Boyfriend Does Other People In My Family And In His Have Diabetes He Has Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed When He Was 12 He Is 18 And Will Turn 19 In October 2011 My Question Is Because Hes Type 1 Diabetic And I Am Not When We Have Children Will Our Children Have Diabetes When They Are Born Are There Tests That Doctors Can Do To Test Unborn Babies For Diabetes Also Are There Medications That Doctors Can Administer During Pregnancy To Prevent The Baby From Getting Diabetes When My Boyfriends Mother Was Pregnant Her Doctors Were Treating Her With Some Kind Of Medication To Keep The Baby From Getting Diabetes And She Lost The Baby We Dont Feel Comfortable Asking Her About The Drugs They Were Giving Her Or Why She Thought She Lost The Baby
It is extremely rare for a baby to have diabetes when they are born. While this can occur, it is not at all common.
Might a child the two of you have develop diabetes mellitus later in life? Yes, they might. Type 2 diabetes is the more common type of diabetes that is more often associated with lifestyles of poor eating habits, inactivity, and obesity. Type 2 diabetes more often occurs in adults but, unfortunately, because of the epidemic of childhood obesity, we are seeing this more in children and teens and young adults, too. Type 2 diabetes can run in families but is, by-and-large, avoidable with good attention to staying trim, active, eating a balanced diet, etc. Type 2 diabetes may not necessarily require insulin injections.
Type 1 diabetes, the type your boyfriend is said to have, can also be inherited. But, type 1 diabetes requires insulin injections in order to stay alive! Type 1 diabetes is associated with some specific configurations of the genes in the DNA. Type 1 diabetes is most often diagnosed in childhood but can develop and any age, but not so often after age 40 years . If one has the genetic profile and propensity, it does NOT mean one WILL develop type 1 diabetes, but does certainly increase the likelihood.
I will add that one of the higher risk factors for a child to develop type 1 diabetes mellitus in their life is for the childs father to have type 1 diabetes.
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Insulin Resistance And Insufficient Insulin Production
Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes means the signal insulin gives to a cell is weakened. This results in less glucose uptake by muscle and fat cells and a reduction in insulin mediated activities inside cells. Compounding this problem of resistance, there is additional defect in insulin production and secretion by the insulin producing cells, the beta cells in the pancreas.
As a group, everyone with with type 2 diabetes has both insulin resistance and an inability to overcome the resistance by secreting more insulin. But any given individual with type 2 may have more resistance than insulin insufficiency or the opposite, more insulin insufficiency than resistance. And the problems may be mild or severe. It is believed that the wide range of clinical presentation is because there are many, many genetic causes and combinations of genetic causes of type 2 diabetes. At present there is no single genetic test for type 2 diabetes. The diagnosis is made on the basis of the individual having clinical features consistent with type 2 diabetes, and by excluding other forms of diabetes.
How To Manage Your Own Needs
Finding out your child has diabetes can be overwhelming. Your childs needs will vary from day to day, depending on what they eat, whether theyre sick, whether theyre growing and how much sleep theyve had. You will manage better on some days than others and should try to take one day at a time.
Remember that having diabetes can affect your childs behaviour. They may feel different from other children. Involve your child in their own care and teach them how to make good choices for their health. Its also a good idea to introduce them to other children who have diabetes.
You are not alone. You will have a team of professionals to help you, which may include your GP, endocrinologist, diabetes educator dietitian, podiatrist and eye specialist. A credentialed diabetes educator is a specially trained health professional who will show you how to manage your childs diabetes. To find a credentialed diabetes educator near you, visit the Australian Diabetes Educators Association website.
Make sure everyone who cares for your child knows they have diabetes and how to manage it. And make sure that glucose is always available in case of hypoglycaemia.
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Target Blood Glucose Levels Before Pregnancy
When youre planning to become pregnant, your daily blood glucose targets may be different than your previous targets. Ask your health care team which targets are right for you.
You can keep track of your blood glucose levels using My Daily Blood Glucose Record. You can also use an electronic blood glucose tracking system on your computer or mobile device. Record the results every time you check your blood glucose. Your blood glucose records can help you and your health care team decide whether your diabetes care plan is working. You also can make notes about your insulin and ketones. Take your tracker with you when you visit your health care team.
Diabetes Symptoms In Children Under 5
It can be hard to spot the symptoms of diabetes in young children. Symptoms normally develop quickly, over a few weeks, and include:
- being very thirsty
- urinating more your child might start wetting themselves again if they are toilet trained
- feeling tired and weak all the time
- losing weight without any explanation
- having blurred vision or other problems with eyesight
- having a yeast infection
- having fruity-smelling breath
- being irritable, restless or moody
If your child has several of these symptoms, see a doctor. Its very important to treat diabetes since it can lead to serious problems over time such as heart disease or damage to the kidneys, nerves, eyes and skin.
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Managing Type 1 Diabetes: Diet And Exercise
There is no one-size-fits-all diet or exercise plan for people with type 1 diabetes, according to the JDRFs UK branch. But a healthy lifestyle will help you keep your blood sugar in a healthy range. Be sure to speak with your doctor before embarking on any diet or exercise plan, to ensure you are making changes that are safe and appropriate for you.
Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes
People with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance. The body still produces insulin, but its unable to use it effectively.
Researchers arent sure why some people become insulin resistant and others dont, but several lifestyle factors may contribute, including being inactive and carrying excess weight.
Other genetic and environmental factors may also play a role. When you develop type 2 diabetes, your pancreas will try to compensate by producing more insulin. Because your body is unable to effectively use insulin, glucose will accumulate in your bloodstream.
Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions , 34.2 million people in the United States were living with diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes in 2018. Thats a little over 1 in 10 people. Ninety to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2.
The percentage of people with diabetes increases with age.
About 10.5 percent of the general population has diabetes. Among those 65 years old and older, the rate reaches 26.8 percent. Only 25 out of every 10,000 Americans under 20 years old had been diagnosed with diabetes in 2018.
Prevalence rates are higher for Hispanic Americans of Mexican or Puerto Rican descent than they are for those of Central and South American or Cuban descent.
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